Pilgrimage • A journey to a sacred religious location.
Caste • The class or order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Animism • The belief that objects and events in nature have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Ethnic religion • A spatially concentrated religion which is specific to a particular place and culture.
Fundamentalism • Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles or rules of a religion.
Polytheism • The belief in more than one god.
Denomination • A division or branch of a religion which unites a number of congregations into one body.
Hierarchical religion • A religion in which central authority exercises a high degree of control.
Universal religion • A religion that attempts to appeal to all people.
Monotheism • The belief that there is only one god.
Syncretism • Joining two or more religions together.
Name the four largest universal religions • Christianity • Islam • Buddhism • Sikhism
What is the largest ethnic religion? • Hinduism
How do ethnic religions diffuse? • The same as folk culture: relocation diffusion.
Describe the diffusion of Buddhism. • 800 BC: Buddhism founded • 300 BC: Emperor Asoka of India converts to Buddhism. • Made Buddhism the official religion • Many officials converted as well (hierarchical diffusion) • Missionaries sent to convert non-Buddhists. • Relocation diffusion • Moved along trade routes to China, Japan, Korea, and the rest of SE Asia.
What is the most important Buddhist site? Why is it important? • Lumbini, It is the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama.
Match the house of worship to the religion: • ___Cathedral____Christianity • ___Pagoda_ ___Buddhist • ____Temple__ _Hindu • ___Synagogue___Judaism • ___Mosque_____Islam
What are two hierarchical religions? • Catholicism • Latter-Day Saints
What are two religions with local autonomy? • Islam • Protestant Christianity • Hinduism • Judaism
Name six Protestant denominations in the Fort Worth area (not in book) • Baptist • Lutheran • Methodist • Presbyterian • Church of Christ • Assembly of God • Seventh Day Adventist • Reform • Episcopal • Disciples of Christ
How did Communism affect religious life in the Soviet Union and in Southwest Asian countries? • Because of the high degree of control that communist government seek to exercise, they are usually hostile to religions and religious expansion.
What are the three holiest sites in Islam? • Mecca • Medina • Jerusalem
What religion is distributed primarily in India? • Hinduism (97% of Hindus live in India)
What religion is located in Southwest Asia and North Africa? • Islam (Shi’a and Sunni Islam)
What religion is dominant in Eastern Europe and Russia? • Orthodox Christianity
Iran is the only country with a majority of which religious group? • Shi’a Islam
Catholicism is distributed in which locations? • Southern and Western Europe, North and South America.
Where is the practice of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism centered? • Southeast Asia
What is the only Shinto country? • Japan
What part of the world has the largest animist population? • Sub Saharan Africa
How has the caste system changed in India in recent history? • The untouchable caste has officially been abolished, and Indians in that class have been given equal rights with other Indians.
Name an example of an Islamic fundamentalist group which has resisted western values. • The Taliban in Afghanistan (AKA, the bad guys in the first Iron Man movie)
Fill in the religious timeline of Muslim Christian relations: • 600-700 AD: Islam spreads through Middle East, displacing many Christians • 711: Muslim invasion of Spain • 732: Islamic army defeated in Europe (modern day France) • 1099: First Crusade: Catholic army captures Jerusalem • 1187: Jerusalem captured by Muslim Army • 1229: Jerusalem retaken by European Christians • 1244: Jerusalem retaken by Muslims • 1492: Christians regain control of Spain • 1453: Constantinople (holiest city in Orthodox Christianity) captured by Muslim Turks
What city is the hearth if this religion, and who is the founder? • Meccas, founded by Mohammad
How did this religion diffuse? • Military conquest (contagious diffusion) into Middle East and North Africa.
What earlier religions did this religion displace? • Christianity, Judaism.