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Path loss & shadowing . By eng : mahmoud abdel aziz . OUTLINE. Ray Tracing Path Loss Models Free Space Model 2 Ray Model General Ray Tracing Empirical measurement Log Normal Shadowing. Slow. Fast. Very slow. Propagation Characteristics. Path Loss (includes average shadowing)

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path loss shadowing

Path loss & shadowing

By eng : mahmoud abdel aziz


Ray Tracing Path Loss Models

Free Space Model

2 Ray Model

General Ray Tracing

Empirical measurement

Log Normal Shadowing

propagation characteristics



Very slow

Propagation Characteristics

Path Loss (includes average shadowing)

Shadowing (due to obstructions)

Multipath Fading








path loss modeling
Path Loss Modeling

Maxwell’s equations

-Complex and impractical

Free space path loss model

- Too simple

Ray tracing models

- Requires site-specific information

Empirical Models

Don’t always generalize to other environments

Simplified power falloff models

Main characteristics: good for high-level analysis

free space path loss los model


Free Space path loss (LOS) Model

the signal propagates along a straight line &The channel model called a line-of-sight (LOS)

Path loss for unobstructed LOS path

Power falls off :

inversely Proportional to d2

Proportional to l2 (inversely proportional to f2)

ray tracing approximation
Ray Tracing Approximation

1- In ray tracing we assume a finite number of reflectors with known location and dielectric properties.

2- Represent wavefronts as simple particles

3- Typically includes reflected rays, can also include scattered and defracted rays.

4-Requires site parameters

* Geometry

* Dielectric properties

two path model
Two Path Model

1-Path loss for one LOS path and 1 ground (or reflected) bounce

2- path loss has alternate min & max as d is increase

3- Power falls off

Proportional to d2 (small d)

Proportional to d4 (d>dc=4hrht\ l)

general ray tracing
General Ray Tracing

1-Models all signal components




1-Requires detailed geometry and dielectric properties of site

2- GRT method uses geometrical optis

3- Computer packages often used

different types of cells
Different types of cells :

1- each model is define for a specific environement

empirical models
Empirical Models

1-A number of path loss models have been developed over the years to predict path loss in typical wireless environments such as large urban macrocells, urban microcells, and, more recently, inside buildings These models are mainly based on empirical measurements over a given distance in a given frequency range and a particular geographical area or building.

2- Analytical models characterize Pr/Pt as a function of distance, so path loss is well defined. In contrast, empirical measurements of Pr/Pt as a function of distanceinclude the effects of path loss, shadowing, and multipath.

okumura hata model
Okumura-Hata model

Most popular model

Based on measurements made in and around Tokyo in 1968.

between 150 MHz and 1500 MHz

1- Output parameter : mean path loss (median path loss) LdB

2- Validity range of the model :

• Frequency f between 150 MHz and1500 Mhz

• TX height hb between 30 and 200 m

• RX height hm between 1 and 10 m

• TX - RX distance r between 1 and 10 km

okumura hata model cont
Okumura-Hata model cont.

3 types of prediction area :

•Open area : open space, no tall trees or building in path

•Suburban area : Village Highway scattered with trees and house Some obstacles near the mobile but not very congested

• Urban area : Built up city or large town with large building and houses

Village with close houses and tall

okumura hata model cont13
Okumura-Hata model cont.

Definition of parameters :

hm : mobile station antenna height above local terrain height [m]

dm: distance between the mobile and the building

h0 : typically height of a building above local terrain height [m]

hb:base station antenna height above local terrain height [m]

r :great circle distance between base station and mobile [m]

R=r x 10 great circle distance between base station and mobile [km]

f: carrier frequency [Hz]

fc=f x 10 carrier frequency [MHz]

λ: free space wavelength [m]



cost 231 extension to hata model
COST 231- extension to Hata model

Okumura-Hata model for medium to small cities has been extended

to cover 1500 MHz to 2000 MHz (1999)

LdB = F + B log10 R – E + G

F = 46.3 + 33.9 log10 fc – 13.82 log10 hb

E designed for medium tosmall cities

0 dB medium sized cities and suburban areas

G =

3 dB metropolitan areas

indoor attenuation factors
Indoor Attenuation Factors

1- Indoor environments differ widely in the materials used.

2- Thus, it is difficult to find generic models that can be accurately applied to determine empirical path loss.

3- Indoor path loss models must accurately capture the effects of attenuation across floors

4- the attenuation per floor is greatest for the first floor that is passed through and decreases with each

subsequent floor passed through.

simplified path loss model
Simplified pathloss model

when tight system specifications must be met or the best locations for base stations

or access point layouts must be determined.

  • the following simplified model for path loss as a function of distance is commonly used for system design:

K :depends on the antenna characteristics and the average channel attenuation,

do: is a reference distance for the antenna far-field

assumed to be 1-10 m indoors and 10-100 m outdoors

γ: is the path loss exponent