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Standard 8-2 AND 8-3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes of the American Revolution and the beginnings of the new nation , with an emphasis on South Carolina’s role in the development of that nation . AND

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standard 8 2 and 8 3

Standard 8-2 AND 8-3

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the causes of the American Revolution and the beginnings of the new nation, with an emphasis on South Carolina’s role in the development of that nation.


The student will demonstrate an understanding of South Carolina’s role in the development of the new national government.

French and Indian War …..
  • French and Indians –VS- England
  • England won.
  • This war started in the colonies and eventually spread into Europe.
  • Also called “The Seven Years War”
  • Result of French and Indian War:

France lost all land in North America

Spain lost control of FL

Indigo trading was expanded

The relationship with the colonies and England changed….

Britain had a lot of debt to pay off

  • SC had little involvement in this war…but it did effect their relationship with the Cherokee and started the Cherokee war in SC.
  • After the French and Indian War, the British Government decided to tax the colonists to help pay for the cost of war. How is war expensive?
  • The most important tax issued by the British government was the Stamp Act.
  • It placed a tax on many paper products, such as newspapers , pamphlets, playing cards, and legal documents.
  • This was a direct tax.
In England… it is against the law to tax people without their vote. …. So why was it OK to tax the colonists without their vote?!?!
  • Colonists began to protest the tax, shouting “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION”, What’s that mean?
  • They set up a big meeting, called The Stamp Act Congress, in which they sent representatives.
  • They decided to: 1.) boycott British goods

2.) harass tax collectors

  • Eventually, Parliament (British Government) took away (repealed) the Stamp Act.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
  • Organized by the Stamp Act Congress to protest taxes
  • Sons of liberty- enforced the boycotts through intimidation and persuasion
  • Daughters of liberty- found substitutes for buying British goods
The Townshend Duties
  • Another indirect tax
  • Taxes on paint, lead, paper, tea, and other goods.
  • Colonists boycotted these goods too.
  • Eventually, this tax was repealed as well, except the tax on tea.
  • This was more of a “rule” than a tax.
  • It said that the colonies could only buy tea from The British East India Company.
  • The colonists refused to buy the tea! (they were already boycotting it anyway due to the Townshend Act)
  • The Sons of Liberty wanted to be sure that colonists didn’t buy tea….so they snuck onto a supply ship and threw all the tea overboard!!
  • This was called the “Boston Tea Party”
They got in BIG TROUBLE with England for doing this!
  • England issued the Intolerable Acts….. Stating that this behavior would not be tolerated. The entire city of Boston was on “restriction” and shut off from trading for a while! 
  • Bad Boston!
  • Sugar Act- taxed sugar items
  • Quartering Act- made every colonist provide shelter and food to any British solider who wanted it.
  • Boston Massacre- An event when British soldiers shot at a group of colonists protesting the taxes. 5 ppl were killed, including one African American named Crispus Attucks.
Meetings, Meetings, Meetings.
  • In the summer of 1774 a bunch of representatives from SC met in Charlestown to talk about their opinions on the acts of the British Government.
  • This meeting had (2) purposes:

1. Elect ppl to go to the 1st Continental Congress ( another BIG TIME MEETING held in September in Philly…)

2.) Establish a “Committee of 99” to govern the colony of SC instead of a Royal Governor.
  • RESULT- they choose (5) guys to attend the Continental Congress Meeting in Philly.

1st Continental Congress

  • Acted as the 1st national government of the United States
  • President of the meeting: Henry Middleton (from SC!)
  • Agreed to not import or export anything with England. (except rice)
The 2nd Continental Congress
  • Men from SC (and other colonies) attended a meeting called “The 2nd Continental Congress” (Thomas Lynch Jr, Thomas Heyward Jr., Edward Rutledge, Arthur Middleton)
  • At this meeting, the Declaration of Independence was written. (BIG deal…)
  • It was based on the ideas of John Locke…..

1. Principals of equality

2. Natural rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”

3. The purpose of government to secure rights

4. The right of people to change government when their natural rights are not being protected.

Order of events that lead to the Declaration of Independence….
  • Intolerable Acts (due to dumping tea overboard!)
  • 1st Continental Congress (meeting to decide to boycott British goods!)
  • Shots fired! (Battle of Lexington and Concord)
  • 2nd Continental Congress (writing of Declaration of Independence)
  • WAR!!!
  • On April 18th, 1775 the British Army took control of all the ammunition in the town of Boston.
  • “British are coming!”
  • Not everyone in SC agreed that the colonies should be free and independent from England.
  • People who supported war were called PATRIOTS.
  • People who did not were called LOYALISTS or TORIES. (they stayed loyal to the King)
  • In SC, 1/3 of ppl were Patriots, 1/3 of ppl were Loyalists, and 1/3 of ppl were neutral.
  • SC saw the most battles of the war than any other colony!
During the war, we had many names….

1. Patriots

2. Continental Army

3. Rebels

4. Militia

5. Minutemen

  • England also had many names……

1. Red Coats

2. Loyalists

3. Lobster backs

4. Tories

South Carolina Patriots
  • Supported the Continental Congress and independence
  • Most were from the Low Country
  • They created a temporary government to control the colony while at war
  • Wealthy, white, men, land owners
  • Volunteered as soldiers to fight in the militia
South Carolina Loyalists
  • Remained loyal to the king
  • Volunteered to fight on England’s side
  • More loyalists in SC than in any other colony (except NY)
  • Most were from the back county
  • Also called “Tories”
  • Fought against a lot of low country patriots
  • When war was over, may loyalists left SC for the Caribbean or Canada. If they didn’t leave, they were run out of town!


  • Guerrilla warriors (sneaky fighters… BOO!)
  • Francis Marion (Swamp Fox), Thomas Sumter (Gamecock), Andrew Pickens (Wizard Owl)
  • They are famous for attacking unprepared British soldiers


  • Managed farms and plantations
  • Many were Patriots
  • Some were loyslists
  • A few were neutral
  • Nurses, messengers, “Camp Followers”
African Americans
  • Some served as Patriot militia and partisan soldiers.
  • Many remained slaves
  • Did not get freedom for fighting.
  • Some fought for the British cause they thought they were going to be freed. They were not.

Native Americans

  • Avoided war…… at first
  • After some time, many natives supported the British soldiers who promised them land in the west for their support.
  • The British moved into SC because they knew they had a lot of support there due to all the loyalists in the back country..

Battles of Charlestown

  • Attacked twice
  • 1st time the British were defeated by our log (palmetto) fort
  • 2nd time the British seized Charleston for many days, blockaded the harbor, and cut off supply lines.
  • British troops treated citizens of Charlestown TERRIBLE and turned many South Carolinas against Britain for good!
Battle of Camden
  • British victory.
  • A lot of our soldiers fled during this battle, which caused us to loose. 
  • Huge loss…. Almost all of SC was controlled by the British at this time.
  • Nathaniel Greene took over command and understood that we needed the help of partisans in order to win the war!
The Battle of Kings Mountain
  • turning point of the war!
  • Patriot victory!
  • Mountain men from NC and SC hid behind trees and rocks and attacked!
  • The British began to retreat from SC after this!

The Battle of Cowpens

  • Patriot victory!
  • The Partisan Army and Regular Continental Army finally worked together!
  • Partisans (under the command of Andrew Pickens) pretended to flee, but instead lured the British forces into the guns of the regular Continental Army!
  • Good fighting tactics were used.
Battle of Etaw Springs
  • Last final major battle on SC
  • Nathaniel Greene used this battle as “payback” for the British for killing Colonel Isaac Hayne.
  • Greene took a lot of British officers as prisoners.
  • Even though the British won the battle, it resulted in them eventually leaving all their posts in SC.
  • There is a door panel in the Capital building in memory of this battle, as well as a medal that was made.
Government DURING and AFTER the war…
  • Before the 1st shots of the war were even fired, SC had formed an independent government of their own.
  • It was called, “The Committee of 99” or “De Facto Government”.
  • Even though there was still a Royal Governor in Charleston, most people obeyed “the committee of 99” instead.
Eventually, a Provincial Congress was created.
  • This congress was made up of people from the Low Country.
  • The Provincial Congress made an army, issued money, and started the writing of the Artlcles of Confederation.
  • Not everyone in SC agreed with the decisions of the Provincial Congress….. Especially back country people.
  • Eventually, a treaty was signed (Treaty of Ninety-Six) saying that the back country people would remain neutral in the war and remain peaceful with the rest of SC.
South Carolina State Constitution #1
  • This state constitution was to serve as the foundation of government until the war with England was over.
  • This is what it included:

1.) a two-house legislature (the “Lower House” elected by the people, and the “Upper House” elected by the “Lower House”)

2.) The president (who was elecged by legislature) could veto laws.

3.) The Low Country had more representation in government than the back country.

South Carolina Constitution #2
  • Written after the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  • Only a few changes from the 1st constitution:
  • “President” was now being called “governor”
  • The Low Country AND the Back County were represented in government.
  • The Church of England (Catholic Church) was no longer the official church.
Articles of Confederation
  • Written after the Declaration of Independence was signed.
  • There were some problems with the new government under the Articles of Confederation…

1. Disagreements over trade

2. Disagreements over currency (money)

3. Disagreements over taxes

    • Overall: the new government was TOO WEAK to meet the needs of the new nation.
    • Charles Pinckney (from SC) was a major voice who demanded a stronger government.
    • He started a committee that would try to strengthen the government.

Economic differences:

  • Up (Back) Country- farmers, no slaves, no plantations
  • Low Country- Elite planters, owned many slaves

*both groups suffered economically as a result of the war**

Other Differences:

  • Low Country was more represented in Congress, Up (Back) country was not.
  • Up (Back) Country felt ignored because they were so far away!
  • The capital was located in the Low Country.
Fixing the differences:
  • The capital was moved to Columbia where it was more centrally located for both areas.
  • Carolina College (eventually USC) was also built to try to bring people from the Up (Back) and Low country together.
  • The invention of the Cotton Gin gave money to both areas and a greater need for slaves in the Up (Back) country.
  • Representation in government was finally equal.
  • This meeting was also held in Philly.
  • The purpose of this meeting was to try to solve the problems of the government under the Articles of Confederation.
What was discussed/supported/decided?

1.) chose a strong president of the United States

2.) State representation will be based on population (under the “Virginia Plan”)

3.) Create a 3 branch government that would include a legislative, executive, and judicial branch. (also under the “Virginia Plan”)

4.) Slaves will be counted in population count (3/5 compromise…..slaves only counted as 3.5 of a person

5.) The Federal Government promised it would not tax exports or attempt to control slave trade for at least 20 years. (Commerce Compromise)

Ratification (changing) the Constitution
  • Ratifying Convention was held in Charleston.
  • Anti-Federalists –VS- Federalists


  • Up (Back) Countrymen
  • Opposed a stronger federal government
  • Scared that the rich people would have too much power in government and abuse their rights
  • Scared that the national government would be located too far away from them.
  • Rich (elite) men (Charles Pickney)
  • Wanted a strong government that could be influenced by foreign affairs
  • Build better trade relationships with other countries


  • Federalists won!
  • SC was the 8th state to be added to the United States!
  • The Federalists added the Bill of Rights to the constitution to make the anti-federalists happy.
  • US Constitution established a limited government based on power shared between national and state governments.
  • US Constitution is the highest law in the US.
  • Each state has it’s own constitution, but the US Constitution is the “Supreme Law of the Land”
  • Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to protects individual rights
Basic Principles of American Government
  • Popular Sovereignty (Democracy)- Allows people to vote.
  • Individual Rights- guaranteed to all citizens
  • Federalism- power is divided between state and national governments
  • Separation of Powers-

Legislative branch = congress.

Executive branch= president/vice president/ secretaries.

Judicial branch= court systems

Checks and Balances- to prevent any one branch of government from having too much power
  • Limited Government (Bill of rights)- protects us against the government from having too much power.
  • Representative Democracy (Republicanism)- The people hold power, but we also elect people to make decisions for us. (ex: president, senator, governor, ect..)
Disagreements and Arguments

Protective Tariff

  • Alexander Hamilton asked congress to pass a high protective tariff (a high tax) on imported goods (goods from other countries) in an attempt to convince people to buy American made goods.
  • RESULT= it was not passed.

State Debt

  • Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists wanted the national government to pay the state debts form the Revolutionary War.
  • Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and The Democratic-Republicans wanted the states to pay their own, individual state debt.

RESULT= The National government would pay all the states debts IF the nation’s capital was moved to the bank of the Potomac River (Washington D.C.)

National Bank
  • Democratic- Republicans thought that congress DID NOT have the right to create a national bank.
  • Federalists thought that congress DID have the right to create a national bank.

RESULT= George Washington sided with the Federalists and signed a bill to create a national bank.

Foreign Policy
  • Democratic-Republicans supported the French when they got involved in a war with their king.
  • The Federalists DID NOT support the French.
  • George Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality that stated the US was to “stay out of other countries business”.
  • Then…. President John Adams send Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to France to “talk peace”.
Pinckney met with “secret people from France”. (X,Y, and Z)
  • X,Y,and Z offered Pinckney a bride and he said “no!”
  • Federalists prepared for war with France and Democratic-Republicans bashed Pres. Adams in the newspaper! (This was called the “X,Y,Z Affair”)
  • Because of this, the Alien and Sedition Act was passed, making the Democratic-Republican’s “silent their newspapers”.
  • Democratic Republicans said this was against “freedom of the press”
  • All states had the opportunity to nullify (ignore) an act of congress that they felt was unconstitutional. (such as the Alien and Sedition Act)
War of 1812
  • The United States –VS- Great Britain (England) AGAIN!
  • CAUSE of war= The US thought that England was urging the Natives to attack American settlers.
  • RESULT of war= New wave of nationalism to the US. (people were more patriotic)
  • Also, the Federalist party died and the Democratic-Republicans started supporting Federalists policies. (like the protective tariff and the national bank)