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CHAPTER ONE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence
STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Why does bread rise?Yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.
2. Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest. AFTER WATCHING THE BREAD RISE AND KNOWING THAT YEAST RELEASES A GAS AS IT FEEDS ON THE SUGAR, MAYBE THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR USED IN A RECIPE TO MAKE BREAD WOULD MAKE THE BREAD BIGGER! WOW! IS I USE A LOT OF SUGAR, THEN I REALLY WILL HAVE A LOT OF DOUGH!
AHRBERT EINSTEIN (Brother of Albert) ALBERT AND I ALWAYS USED 50G OF SUGAR WHEN MAKING BREAD. OUR BREAD WAS ALWAYS A GOOD SIZE AND MOST DELICIOUS! FOR YOU TO DO THIS EXPERIMENT, YOU WOULD HAVE HAD TO RESEARCH THE AREA OF BAKING AND FERMENTATION….THAT IS HOW WE CAME UP WITH 50G OF SUGAR
3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Example: If more sugar is added, Then the bread will rise higher.
The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Do you know the difference between independent and dependent variables?
4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure. Include a detailed materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable) You will use your independent variable when experimenting; for this experiment, It is the amount of sugar you use for each trial. Let’s say we are going to use 25g, 50g, 75g, 100g and 125g of sugar. When Albert and Ahrbert made bread, they use 50g of sugar; therefore, 50g becomes our control. KEEP ALL OTHER FACTORS, SUCH AS OVEN TEMP, THE SAME--- CONSTANT----SO THAT ANY CHANGES IN THE BREAD ARE DUE TO THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE 5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3 Size of Bread Loaf (cm3) Trials Control group
Steps of the Scientific Method 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience. WAS THE ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS CORRECT? “IF MORE SUGAR IS ADDED, THEN THE BREAD WILL RISE HIGHER?” LET’S LOOK AT THE GRAPH YOU TELL ME IS OUR HYPOTHESIS VALID? IF SO, WHY? IF NOT, WHY NOT?
Independent Variable The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter. We aregoing to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in AHR experiment.
Dependent Variable The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable. In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread.
Control Group In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison. The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.
Control Group The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. All experiments should have a control group.
Control Group Because AHR bakers usually use 50g. of sugar in their recipes, then We will use 50g Is our CONTROL In other words,we Know what the bread Will look like with 50g of Sugar---that is why we will Try other amounts…larger And smaller….
Constants The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same. In this experiment, we can play around with the amounts of sugar we use. Let’s try amounts less than 50g and greater than 50g We cannot touch the amounts of sugar but we can play around with other factors such as the temperature of the oven, air temp, type of pan, age of yeast, etc.
GIVE THE STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD • 1. PROBLEM • 2. QUESTION • 3. HYPOTHESIS • 4. EXPERIMENT • 5. ANALYZE • 6. CONCLUDE • 7. PUBLISH