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Chapter One. What Is Anthropology?. What We Will Learn. How does anthropology differ from other social and behavioral sciences? What is the four- field approach to the discipline of anthropology? How can anthropology help solve social problems?

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Chapter one

Chapter One

What Is Anthropology?


What we will learn
What We Will Learn

  • How does anthropology differ from other social and behavioral sciences?

  • What is the four- field approach to the discipline of anthropology?

  • How can anthropology help solve social problems?

  • What is meant by “cultural relativism,” and why is it important?

  • What skills will students develop from the study of anthropology?


What is anthropology
What is Anthropology?

  • Anthropology is the study of people

    • their origins

    • their development, and contemporary variations

    • wherever and whenever they have been found.


Branches of anthropology physical anthropology
Branches of Anthropology: Physical Anthropology

  • Paleontology

  • Primatology

  • Human variation

  • Forensic Anthropology

  • Applied Physical Anthropology


Branches of anthropology archaeology
Branches of Anthropology: Archaeology

  • Historical archaeology

  • Prehistoric archaeology

  • Contract archaeology

  • Applied archaeology


Branches of anthropology anthropological linguistics
Branches of Anthropology: Anthropological Linguistics

  • Historical linguistics

  • Descriptive linguistics

  • Ethnolinguistics

  • Sociolinguistics

  • Applied linguistics


Branches of anthropology cultural anthropology
Branches of Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology

  • Economic anthropology

  • Psychological anthropology

  • Educational anthropology

  • Medical anthropology

  • Urban anthropology

  • Political anthropology

  • Applied cultural anthropology


Physical anthropology
Physical Anthropology

  • Study of humans from a biological perspective.

  • Areas of investigation:

    • Paleoanthropology - emergence of humans and how humans have evolved.

    • Human variation - how and why the physical traits of human populations vary.


Primatology
Primatology

  • Study of anatomy and social behavior of nonhuman primate species: gorillas, baboons, and chimpanzees.

  • Effort to learn about human evolution by studying contemporary nonhuman primates in similar environments.

  • Tool-making skills found in chimpanzees help explain human strategies for adapting to the environment.


Archaeology
Archaeology

  • Study people from the past by analyzing material culture they leave behind:

    • Artifacts Example: tools, arrowheads.

    • FeaturesExamples: foundations and fireplaces.

    • EcofactsExamples: bones, seeds, and wood.


Archaeologists
Archaeologists

  • Historic archaeologists:

    • Reconstruct the cultures of people who used writing and about whom historical documents have been written.

  • Prehistoric archaeologists:

    • Study the human record of cultures that existed before the development of writing.


Anthropological linguistics
Anthropological Linguistics

  • Historical linguistics

    • Study of emergence of language and how specific languages have diverged over time.

  • Descriptive linguistics

    • Study of sound systems, grammatical systems, and the meanings attached to words in specific languages.


Anthropological linguistics1
Anthropological Linguistics

  • Ethnolinguistics

    • Study the relationship between language and culture.

  • Sociolinguistics

    • Study the relationship between language and social relations.


Cultural anthropology
Cultural Anthropology

  • Areas of Specialization

  • Urban anthropology

  • Medical anthropology

  • Educational anthropology

  • Psychological anthropology


Holism
Holism

  • A distinguishing feature of the discipline of anthropology is its holistic approach to the study of human groups.

    • Anthropology involves both biological and sociocultural aspects of humanity.

    • The time frame goes from the earliest beginnings of humans to the present.

    • Anthropology studies all varieties of people wherever they may be found.


Holism1
Holism

  • Anthropology studies many different aspects of human experience:

    • Family structure

    • Marital regulations

    • House construction

    • Methods of conflict resolution

    • Means of livelihood

    • Religious beliefs

    • Language

    • Space usage, and art


Responding to unfamiliar cultures
Responding to Unfamiliar Cultures

  • Ethnocentrically

    • Responding from the context of one’s own cultural perspective.

  • Cultural relativist

    • Responding within the context of the other culture.


Limits of cultural relativism
Limits of Cultural Relativism

  • If every society is unique and can only be evaluated in terms of its own standards, a cross-cultural comparison impossible.

  • There is no behavior that could be considered immoral if the people who practice it consider it acceptable or it functions for the well-being of the society.


Emic versus etic approaches
Emic Versus Etic Approaches

  • The emic approach (insider view) seeks to describe another culture in terms of the categories, concepts, and perceptions of the people being studied.

  • In the etic approach (outsider view), anthropologists use their own categories and concepts to describe the culture under analysis.


Value of anthropology
Value of Anthropology

  • Individual

    • The study of different cultures provides a better understanding of one’s own culture and develops valuable leadership skills.

  • Societal

    • Understanding different cultures can contribute to the solution of pressing societal problems.



Chapter one


Answer d
Answer: d

  • The study of humans from a biological perspective is physical anthropology.


Chapter one

2. ________ are objects that have been made or modified by human beings.

  • Features

  • Objects

  • Artifacts

  • Ecofacts


Answer c
Answer: c human beings.

  • Artifacts are objects that have been made or modified by human beings.


Chapter one

3. A distinguishing feature of anthropology is its ________ approach to the study of human groups.

  • emic

  • etic

  • ethnocentric

  • holistic


Answer d1
Answer: d approach to the study of human groups.

  • A distinguishing feature of anthropology is its holistic approach to the study of human groups.


Chapter one

4. Cultural relativism is the idea that any part of culture must be viewed in its proper cultural context.

  • True

  • False


Answer true
Answer: true must be viewed in its proper cultural context.

  • Cultural relativism is the idea that any part of culture must be viewed in its proper cultural context.


Chapter one

5. ________ is the belief that one's own culture is superior to all others.

  • Holism

  • Ethnocentrism

  • Cultural relativism

  • Emeticism


Answer b
Answer: b to all others.

  • Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own culture is superior to all others.