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Kinetic and Potential Energy

Kinetic and Potential Energy

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Kinetic and Potential Energy

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  1. Kinetic and Potential Energy

  2. Investigation One Kinetic and Potential Energy

  3. Law of Conservation of Energy • Energy cannot be created nor destroyed • Energy can change from one form to another • Two Types of Energy • Kinetic Energy • Potential Energy

  4. Kinetic Energy • The energy of motion • When an object is moving it is said to have kinetic energy • Ball rolling down a hill • Kinetic Energy • When an object is not moving • Ball sitting at the top of a hill or at the bottom • No kinetic Energy

  5. Kinetic Energy • The more kinetic energy an object has the faster and further it can travel

  6. Potential Energy • The energy stored in an object or substance • An object that is at rest (not moving) has potential energy • The object can potentially start to move • Ball rolling down a hill • No Potential energy • A ball at the top of a hill or at the bottom, that is not moving • Potential Energy

  7. Potential Energy • The amount of potential energy an object has depends on its mass and the height of the object above a surface • A ball is sitting at the top of the hill • The potential energy increases as the height of the hill increases • PE=massg•height • g is a constant due to gravity. • On Earth g=9.81 m/s² • Potential Energy unit is joules (J)

  8. Kinetic and Potential Energy • An object has EITHER kinetic OR potential energy. • EITHER 100% Kinetic (0% potential) • OR 100% Potential (0% kinetic) • Cannot have both forms of energy at once • Energy can be transferred between Potential and Kinetic

  9. Kinetic and Potential Energy • As potential energy increases Kinetic Energy increase Kinetic Energy Potential Energy

  10. Variables Independent Dependent • The item that is changed in the experiment • Height of the ball • The item that is being measured in the experiment • The distance the ball traveled

  11. Transferring of Energy • Law of conservation of Energy says that energy cannot be created or destroyed just changes from one form to another. • Energy transfers from Potential energy(object at rest- the potential to move) to Kinetic Energy (an object in motion)

  12. Transferring of energy Hand and Block Pendulum • Kinetic energy was transferred from the moving hand to the wooden block • Potential energy was converted to Kinetic Energy • The Potential energy of the pendulum ball was transferred to Kinetic energy of the ball as it was dropped from its starting position • The kinetic energy was transferred to the ball, causing the ball to move.

  13. Investigation Two

  14. Electrical Energy • Electric Potential Energy- the potential energy that exists when comparing a region of high electrical charge to one of low electrical potential charge • Electric Power is the rate a which electrical potential energy is converted into other forms

  15. Light Energy • Light energy is a form of Kinetic Energy • Photons in light move • Light bulbs are given power rating in watts (W) • When wattage of a light bulb increases the light intensity increases • Wattage increases=electrical energy increases

  16. Electrical and Light Energy Electrical Energy (potential Energy) Light Energy (Kinetic Energy) • One form of energy is converted to another form of energy • Electrical Energy Light energy • Potential Energy  Kinetic Energy

  17. Light Energy Converted To • Thermal (heat) • Solar (back to electrical energy) • Chemical (photosynthesis)

  18. Can one form of energy be converted to another? • Yes, Energy can be converted to other forms • Potential to Kinetic • Electrical to Light • Light to Heat • Light to Chemical • Light to Electrical

  19. Converting Energy and Law of Conservation of Energy • Law of conservation of energy says energy can be converted from one form to another, • But it is not created or destroyed • Increase in electrical energy (wattage) shows an increase in the light energy and temperature (heat) shows that energy was conserved

  20. Investigation Three

  21. Chemical Potential Energy • the potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of chemical compounds • This energy can be released when substances react chemically to form new substances • Backing soda + vinegar=carbon dioxide

  22. Chemical Potential energy • Baking soda has chemical Potential Energy Vinegar has chemical potential Energy • The energy is released when the reactions starts • Once the reaction begins the potential energy becomes kinetic • Potential Energy that was stored in the baking soda and the vinegar is converted into Kinetic Energy

  23. Chemical Energy • As the amount of Vinegar increases to react with the baking soda the more chemical energy that is released • Increase in Chemical energy relased • More bubbles • Occurred faster • Increasing either the vinegar or baking soda increases the potential energy thus increasing the Kinetic energy