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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD Resource File. Table of Contents. Definition 3-4 Educational Characteristics 5 Behavior Characteristics 6-7 Educational Aspects (Assessment) 8 Educational Aspects (Instructional Strategies) 9 Social Impact 10

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Definition 3-4
  • Educational Characteristics 5
  • Behavior Characteristics 6-7
  • Educational Aspects (Assessment) 8
  • Educational Aspects (Instructional Strategies) 9
  • Social Impact 10
  • Overall Impact 11
  • Resources 12
  • Conceptual Framework 13
  • References 14
definition neurological disorder that leads to trouble with inattention and hyperactivity

Definition-neurological disorder that leads to trouble with inattention and hyperactivity.

The disorder is due to underdeveloped prefrontal/frontal lobes (motor behavior), basal ganglia (control of motor behavior), cerebellum (coordination of motor behavior), and corpus collosum (connections) areas of the brain.

Underdevelopment in these areas lead to the characteristics and difficulties linked to ADHD.


ADHD has 3 subtypes:

  • ADHD predominantly inattentive type
  • ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type

3) ADHD combined type

educational characteristics
Educational Characteristics

The problems associated with ADHD (hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness) all make it harder for students to interact and prosper in a normal school setting.

Effective emotional programming for students is very important in education

  • Structure of the classroom and clear teacher direction of activities/lessons are very important methods to consider for the teaching of a student with ADHD.
  • Functional behavioral assessments and contingency-based self-management are also necessary for the educational aspect of the disorder.
behavioral characteristics
Behavioral Characteristics
  • Behavioral Inhibition

1. Inattention

2. Hyperactivity

3. Impulsivity

  • Behavioral inhibition includes the ability to..

-delay a response

-interrupt an ongoing response

-protect a response from distracting or competing


  • Problems engaging in goal-directed behavior
behavioral characteristics cont
Behavioral Characteristics cont.
  • Problems with behavioral inhibition is seen through…

- not waiting one’s turn

-not refraining from interrupting a conversation

-not resisting potential distractions

-or not delaying instant gratification from one’s work to larger or long-term rewards (*they must have a response now)

  • Problems with Executive Functions (self-directed behaviors)

- working memory Forgetfulness, lack of hindsight and foresight, time management

- Inner speech  voice needed to talk to oneself while working out a solution to a problem

- Emotions and arousal levels  overreact to negative or positive

- analyzing problems and communicating the solution  respond impulsively, not flexible,

educational aspects
Educational Aspects

Assessing student needs

  • Assessment of students with ADHD

- Rating scales and direct observations

- Functional Behavioral Assessment

-involves… determined consequences, antecedents, and setting events

that maintain appropriate behavior

-Contingency-based self-management

-students keep track of their own behavior and then receive consequences


educational aspects cont
Educational Aspects cont.

Intervention and Instructional Strategies

  • Preplanning = small units, no progression until understood, teacher feedback

They need shorter time to focus attention, reduce reliance on working memory

  • Introduction = objectives, rationale given, presentation, organizer that gives schedule

Creates a goal-setting guide

  • Instruction = demonstrate procedure, teacher thinking aloud, modeling exact steps, asking feedback during.

Increases the likelihood of them making connections

  • Guided Practice = transition between instruction and independent practice, teacher actively provides feedback

Most need to be actively engaged in the activity to be receptive of it

  • Independent Practice = students practice the activity on their own or small groups, should do so with competence

Increases the likelihood of meaningful engagement

  • Closure and Review = review ideas from lesson, review vocabulary and big idea, make connections between this and past activities

Helps with the students difficulty of synthesizing

social impact
Social Impact
  • Relationships with family and professionals

- Social relationships are often filled with misunderstandings and miscommunication.

- The disorder causes difficulty in managing their reactions.

- Interactions are often tense.

  • Relationships with peers

- Often rejected

- Perceived as shy or withdrawn due to inattentive behavior

overall impact
Overall Impact
  • 2/3 of people with ADHD as children carry the symptoms into adulthood
  • Adult ADHD leads to antisocial, anxiety, and depression disorders
local state national resources
Local, State, National Resources
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  • National Resource Center on ADHD
  • National Institute of Mental Health


These resources are a great way to learn more about ADHD, as well as open doors to further resources that are available to the public, including those for educators, families, and peers who may be impacted by the disorder.

brescia s school of education conceptual framework
Brescia’s School of Education Conceptual Framework
  • Professional Educator

-A professional educator should be one who is well-knowledged in all aspects of the teaching profession. Special educators and general educators alike should be knowledgeable of learning disabilities and how to approach them via teaching methods.

  • Ethics

- As an educator, ethics take a primary role in the effectiveness of the relationships we build with out students. We should be knowledgeable in the aspects of disabilities, but should not characterize the child by their disability, but build relationships based on the students themselves.

  • Advocacy

- Teachers should lead the way in the advocacy of fair treatment of all students. Because of our knowledge associated with varying disabilities we should lead the way in teaching others and express ways to help those students with disabilities to the best of our abilities.

  • Service

- Our services as teachers is to lead students to better understanding of concepts and form students who may prosper in life. We must show this service to others including those with disabilities. It is important that people do not discriminate students because of their disabilities.

  • Lifelong Learning

- As an educator and as a student of Brescia University’s School of Education, it is important that we grasp hold of the idea of life long learning. Life long learning is not limited to our subject of study, but also the different types of students that we may encounter during out careers. Learning about different disabilities and how we as teachers can best suit their needs is another aspect of lifelong learning that we must commit ourselves to.

  • American Psychological Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition (Text Revision) – American Psychiatric Publishing
  • Barkely, R. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook. (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Publishing.
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (2011). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved from website:
  • Hallahan, D. (2009). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. (11th ed., pp. 222-57). Boston: Pearson.
  • Henderson, K. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. (2003). Identifying and treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A resource for home and school (HS97017002)
  • MacGeorge, T. National Resource Center, CHADD. (n.d.). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved from website:
  • Strine TW, Lesesne CA, Okoro CA, McGuire LC, Chapman DP, Balluz LS, Mokdad AH. Emotional and behavioral difficulties and impairments in everyday functioning among children with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006 Apr;3(2):A52. Epub 2006 Mar
  • The Reach Institute, (2012). The resource of advancing children's health. Retrieved from Namaro website:
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (1999). Diagnosis of adhd. Retrieved from website:
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (TR083572). Retrieved from website: