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IT’S GROWING ON ME…. sUCcESSION. Primary vs. secondary succession. Climax community . Succession. What is the difference?. What is it?. How do you know the land has reached this point?. What type of succession?.

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    2. Primary vs. secondary succession Climax community Succession What is the difference? What is it? How do you know the land has reached this point?

    3. What type of succession? Tornadoes during the northern hemisphere’s spring season of 1985 leveled acres of ancient forests in northwest Pennsylvania. This gave researchers first-hand information on regeneration patterns in forests never touched by human development.

    4. What type of succession? • Following a disturbance, an area of habitat or a community returns to the climax state.

    5. What type of succession? • The gradual, sequential growth of species in an area.

    6. What type of succession? • Results in a climax community (a stable end point community).

    7. What type of succession? A succession pattern that occurs in abandoned fields, burned forests, and storm-battered intertidal zones.

    8. What type of succession? May occur on a new volcanic island or on land exposed by the retreat of a glacier.

    9. What type of succession? • Large areas of Australia were burned during the summer of 1997. However, new groundcover soon started growing in the open areas and rich nutrients of the fire ashes.

    10. What type of succession? • As global temperatures rise and glaciers recede, the land left behind will be inhabited by lichen, followed by mosses. As plant matter decays and weathering continues, soil will slowly develop which will sustain tundra grasses and wildflowers.

    11. What type of succession? • Changes begin when a pioneer population colonizes a habitat with no life.

    12. What type of succession? • The pioneer species improve conditions for other species and often set the stage for their own replacement.

    13. What type of succession? • Involves typically small plants, with brief life cycles, adapted to grow in exposed areas with intense sunlight, swings in temperature and nutrient-deficient soil.

    14. What type of succession? • When Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State erupted in 1980, the existing communities were destroyed. Within two years subalpine flowers could be seen blooming and mountain meadows had formed; the communities were reforming.

    15. Pond _?_ Plankton growth is rich enough to support animals that entered when the pond was connected to the lake. Fish make nests on the sandy bottom. Mussels crawl over the bottom. Pond _?_:Decayed bodies of plants and animals form a layer of humus over the bottom of the pond. Chara, ( green algae), covers the humus. Fish that build nests on the bare bottom have been replaced by those that lay their eggs on the Chara. Pond _?_:The pond is so filled with vegetation that there are no longer any large areas of open water. Instead, the pond is filled with grasses. The water dries up during the summer months. Pond _?_: Cattails, bulrushes, and water lilies grow in the pond. These plants have their roots in the bottom of the pond, but they can reach above the surface of the water. This pond is an ideal habitat for the animals that must climb to the surface for oxygen. Aquatic insect larvae are abundant. They serve as food for larger insects, which in turn are food for crayfish, frogs, salamanders, and turtles

    16. USING THE PICTURES AND READINGS ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS • Write the letters of the ponds in order from the youngest, to the oldest. • How has the pond changed over time? 3.. Black bass and bluegill make their nests on sandy bottoms. In which pond would you find them? 4.. What will happen to the black bass and blue gill as the floor of the ponds fills with organic debris? 5. Golden shiner and mud minnows lay their eggs on Chara (green algae). In which pond would you find them? 6. Some amphibians and crayfish can withstand periods of dryness by burying themselves in mud. In which pond(s) would they survive? 7. Dragonfly nymphs spend their early stages clinging to submerged plants. Then, they climb to the surface, shed their skins and fly away as dragonflies. Which pond is best suited for dragonflies? A. 8. In which pond will gill breathing snails be replaced by lung breathing snails that climb to the surface to breathe? 9. Some mussels require a sandy bottom in order to maintain an upright position. In which pond will they die out?