Unit 1 Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920) Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.
Chapter 1: The Rise of Corporations Content Statement: The rise of corporations, heavy industry, mechanized farming and technological innovations transformed the American economy from an agrarian to an increasingly urban industrial society. Expectations For Learning: Analyze how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, mechanized farming and technological innovations transformed the American economy from an agrarian to an increasingly urban industrial society.
Section 1: Rise of Corporations and Heavy Industry Content Elaboration: Industrialization in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was characterized by the rise of corporations and heavy industry, which transformed the American economy. It marked a shift from a predominance of agricultural workers to a predominance of factory workers. It marked a shift from rural living to urban living, with more people living in crowded and unsanitary conditions.
Industrialization • What do you know about industrialization? (on your own) • Share with one or two other people • As a class, what do we know???????
Effects of Industrialization During the 19th Century Q: What is Industrialization? A: When workers and immigrants from other countries moved into urban areas (cities) and began to work in the factories. This began in the US in the 1870’s. *During the years after the Civil War, people began to move to the cities. 1850’s: 1 in 5 people lived in the city 1915: half of all people lived in the city
Rural vs. Urban vs. Suburban • rural: farm area • urban: city area • suburban: area located on the outskirts of the cities
Effect #1: Cities Grew 1. Farmers move to the city a. Find jobs b. Have better lives 2. Immigrants come to the cities a. Most immigrants settled in the city b. Settled together in the cities 3. This created many problems a. overcrowding b. poor housing c. poor sanitation/dirty d. rise in crime
Effect #2: US economy became the best 1. immigrants worked AND bought stuff 2. improvements in transportation and communication 3. better technology: machines 4. new business processes: modern corporation 5. tariffs
Effect #3: Workplace changes 1. Before IR: small business. Everyone knew each other 2. During IR: large factories and Corporations. Many people operated machines
Working Conditions Change • 1. fierce competition for jobs (immigrants, child labor • 2. layoffs • 3. low pay, long hours, unsafe conditions 4. dangerous machines 5. dark and dangerous factories 6. little or no benefits, unemployment, or disability 7. no worker’s compensation 8. Women and Child Workers • a. women • increased • had to work to make end’s meat • made 1/2 of what men made • b. children • increased • worked for less money • dangerous conditions • child labor laws passed (ignored at first)
Effect #4: Living Conditions 1. housing: tenement houses--crowded apartment buildings where many people lived during the Industrial Revolution 2. no or poor sewers/water 3. dirty and diseases spread 4. high crime
Industrialization and the Rise of the Modern Corporation • Q: What is an entrepreneur? • A. Someone who starts up their own business • Q: What is a corporation? • A: New businesses needed money (capital) to start up. A corporation was one way to get that capital. Corporations sell shares of their business, called stock, to the public. If the company does well, stockholders earn a profit. • Examples: railroads, Standard Oil, General Electric
Businesses Compete • Business leaders looked for ways to make more profit • A. wanted less competition • B. Examples: Oil, coal, and steel industries • 1. Create monopoly (when there is no competition in a business)or trusts • combined many small companies into 1 large company = less competition = charge higher prices = more $$$$$$$$$
Examples of Monopolies 1. J. Pierpont Morgan • A great organizer • Bought many businesses, including Carnegie Steel • Controlled many RR’s • Worth billions • Banking mogul
Andrew Carnegie • Childhood A. Poor B. Educated himself C. Became millionaire • Steel monopoly • Gave a lot away A. Colleges B. Libraries • Pittsburgh
John Rockefeller and Standard Oil Company A. ambitious B. great organizer C. Cleveland 1. great place to start oil business • by a lake • many railroads • D. Monopoly in oil refineries • 1. 1st in Cleveland • 2. bought others in other areas
Laissez-Faire • Q: What is laissez-faire? • A: The government allows business owners to do as they choose • Laissez-faire allowed for: • 1. no gov. regulation of business • 2. wages and working conditions were unregulated • 3. no environmental regulations to control pollution • 4. allowed for the rise of monopolies
Do You Agree With Laissez-Faire??? Pros • Gov. can’t tell owner what to do • Business owner would make more money Cons • Gov. could shut business down if they did bad things (unsafe, pollution, etc.) • have to make business safer • better working conditions (higher pay, shorter hours, insurance, etc)
OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following was not an effect of the Industrial Revolution? • A. An increasing number of people worked on family farms • B. An increasing number of people lived in cities • C. An increasing number of people worked in factories • D. An increasing number of people left the family farms
OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Base Test March 2005) One effect of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th century was • A. a decrease in immigration to the United States • B. an increase in demand for handicraft goods • C. a decrease in child labor • D. an increase in urbanization
OGT Short Answer • Why did corporations favor laissez-faire policies?
Section 2: Improved Farming Technology Content Elaboration: Mechanized farming also transformed the American economy. Production was made more efficient as machines replaced human labor.
On the Farm • Technology: modernized the farms 1. Railroads • Transport goods • Transcontinental—1869 (railroad that stretched all the way across the United States) • By 1900, several transcontinental RR’s • 1880: 93,000 miles of track • 1900: 193,000 miles of track
New Invention Help Farmers a. 1875--refrigerated railroad cars b. McCormick reaper c. thresher d. steel-tipped plow e. combines (reap, thresh, and clean grain) f. fertilizer ***All of these allowed farmers to grow more crops with less labor in a short period of time. Food could also be transported all over the country!
OGT Extended Response • The Industrial Revolution brought about major changes not only in cities, but in rural America as well. Explain two ways farming changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution. (4 points)
OGT Extended Response • How did agricultural tools and machines invented in the 19th century make it possible for American cities to grow rapidly in the late 1800’s. (4 points)
OGT Extended Response • _____ (Base Test March 2005) During the Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century, farmers in the United States worked to increase their land holdings and modernize their equipment. A lasting effect of these changes was • A. higher prices for crops • B. increased rural population density • C. a shortage of land for farming • D. greater productivity of farming
Section 3: New Technology in Factories Content Elaboration: New technologies (e.g., mechanized assembly line, electric motors) made factory production more efficient and allowed for larger industrial plants. Some of the technological innovations that transformed the American economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries include the telephone, phonograph, incandescent light bulb, washing machine, skyscraper, automobile, and airplane.
New Innovations Research a new innovation of the Industrial Revolution. • Explain the innovation. • Who was the inventor? • How did this innovation change people’s lives? Use the link below, or use a different source if you want. http://americanhistory.about.com/library/charts/blchartindrev.htm