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UNIT 1

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  1. UNIT 1 8000 BCE – 600 CE (FOUNDATIONS)

  2. UNIT 2 600 CE – 1450 CE

  3. Unit 3 1450-1750 The Origins of Global Interdependence

  4. We'll be fighting in the streetsWith our children at our feetAnd the morals that they worship will be goneAnd the men who spurred us onSit in judgment of all wrongThey decide and the shotgun sings the song I'll tip my hat to the new constitutionTake a bow for the new revolutionSmile and grin at the change all around mePick up my guitar and playJust like yesterdayAnd I'll get on my knees and prayWe don't get fooled againDon't get fooled again Unit 4: 1750 – 1914

  5. Unit 4: 1750 – 1914 • Revolutions and independence movements transformed the political and social landscape of many parts of the world • Enlightenment philosophies of 17th and 18th century taking hold • leads to a developing sense of nationalism • Patterns of world trade and technology changed • Industrial Revolution revolutionized communications and commerce. • Industrialization had a huge impact on the environment • demands for new fuels came about • cities dominated the landscape in industrialized countries • less industrialized countries often supplied the demand for raw materials, altering natural landscapes further

  6. Unit 4: 1750 – 1914 • Serf and slave systems became less common • gap between the rich and poor grew in industrialized countries • new social and gender roles emerged for both men, women, and children as result of industrialization • Huge numbers of people migrated to the Americas from Europe and Asia • population in the western hemisphere grew dramatically • the slave trade and forced migrations from Africa to the New World came to an end • The definition of "west" expanded to include the United States and Australia • western dominance reached not only economic and political areas, but extended to social, cultural, and artistic realms as well. • Europeans undertook “imperialism”

  7. Taken from Anatomy of a Revolution, 3rd ed., Crane Brinton (New York: Vintage Books, 1965) A.  Old Regime (Right)    1.  Economically weak -- The government has deficits and must tax.    2.  Politically weak -- The government is ineffective and cannot enforce policy.    3.  Intellectuals desert -- Reformers speak out against the government.    4.  Class antagonism -- There is a conflict between the old regime and new forces. B.  First stages of Revolution    1.  Symbolic actions -- There is a rallying point against the old regime.    2.  Planning -- The new forces plan "spontaneous" revolt.    3.  Role of force -- The government cannot repress the rebellion. C.  Rule of Moderates    1.  Dual sovereignty -- There is a much better organized and obeyed government.    2.  Moderates take over mechanism of government -- make a new constitution; fight a war D.  Accession of Extremists    1.  Coup d’état -- The illegal government seizes power.    2.  Organization -- A small number of devoted, disciplined radicals govern. E.  Reigns of Terror and Virtue   1.  Forced conformity or punishment.   2.  Spread the gospel of revolution   3.  Causes of terror: habitual violence, pressure of war, economic crisis, class or ideological struggles F.  Thermidore (Center) 1.  First convalescence from fever of revolution 2.  Amnesty or repression 3.  Return of pleasure, religion, status quo, etc.

  8. So What Led To All This Revolution… • The Enlightenment • A change in thought led by philosophers with the goal of studying society in order to make people better and happier. • It impacted many different areas of society in Europe • Economics • Laissez-faire system • Rights of Women • Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women • Social Life • Growth of Reading • The Salon • Religion • Renewed interest • Rise of Methodism

  9. In order for Revolutions to work, there must first be a strong belief in the idea of Popular Sovereignty. This is the belief that the legitimacy of the state (government) is created by the true will or consent of its people. Under this system, citizens are the source of all political power.

  10. 26: Revolutions in the Atlantic World • New Ideals • Enlightenment ideals of freedom, equality, and popular sovereignty now enacted • The Enlightenment challenged this right • made the monarch responsible to the people • traditionally monarchs claimed a "divine right" to rule • John Locke • theory of government as a contract between rulers and subjects • authority comes from the consent of the governed • inspired the leaders of the American Revolution. • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • concept of a "social contract" based on the "general will“ • found expression in the National Assembly of France

  11. Social Contract Philosophers

  12. The French Revolution

  13. Causes of the Revolution… • The division of classes greatly upset those at the bottom of society. • 400k Nobility, 100k Clergy, 24 Mil. Everyone else • Taxes for 3rd estate were high, famine widespread yet “perks” for nobility continued. • Had to pay to use community facilities • The 3rd estate forced Louis XVI to assemble the Estates General • Hadn’t been called to order in over 100 years • They had delegates but votes were only 1 per estate for big matters….so it didn’t do crap for the 3rd estate.

  14. Ancien Regime / The Three Estates / Estates General

  15. Goals of the Revolution… • The 3rd Estate hoped to set up a constitutional government • This would abolish tax exemptions for 1st/2nd estates • This would also eliminate the king and queen, as constitutional governments have elected officials • Hoped this would solve the financial crises and poverty

  16. Key Events… • Tennis Court Oath • After the 3rd Estate was outvoted in the Estates General meeting, they quickly assembled to draft a French Constitution. • When they arrived at the meeting place, the doors were locked so they moved to a nearby indoor tennis court… • The oath they swore to continue meeting until the constitution was done was called the “Tennis Court Oath”

  17. The Tennis Court Oath, May 1789 / National Assembly

  18. Key Events • Storming of the Bastille • When King Louis decided to use force against the 3rd Estate, they reacted by storming into the Bastille, an armory and prison in Paris. • They dismantled it brick by brick as a show of rebellion and force

  19. Storming of the Bastille / July 14th, 1789 Bastille Day / July 14th

  20. Bastille Day • There's no bread, let them eat cakeThere's no end to what they'll takeFlaunt the fruits of noble birthWash the salt into the earthBut they're marching to Bastille DayLa guillotine will claim her bloody prizeFree the dungeons of the innocentThe king will kneel, and let his kingdom riseBloodstained velvet, dirty laceNaked fear on every faceSee them bow their heads to dieAs we would bow as they rode byAnd we're marching to Bastille Day • La guillotine will claim her bloody prizeSing, o choirs of cacophonyThe king has kneeled, to let his kingdom rise.Lessons taught but never learnedAll around us anger burnsGuide the future by the pastLong ago the mould was castFor they marched up to Bastille DayLa guillotine claimed her bloody prizeHear the echoes of the centuriesPower isn't all that money buys

  21. Key Events • The Great Fear • After the Bastille, King Louis could no longer trust his troops to enforce his laws. • Peasant rebellions began to take place all over the countryside • A panic spread through France. Citizens feared invasion by foreign troops who would support the monarchy…so they formed militias and prepared to fight.

  22. Key Events • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen • After the Great Fear, the new National Assembly began to meet to make changes. • Their first change was to abolish the privileges given to nobility and clergy. • Inspired by the American Declaration of Independence, they created a declaration which said, “Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” • But, did this apply to women? • Yep, as long as women “did not hope to exercise political rights and functions” • Only one woman spoke out, and she was ignored by the assembly.

  23. The Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen “Liberty, equality, fraternity!”

  24. Key Events • The King Concedes • After speaking with armed women about their starving children, Louis was convinced to travel to Paris. • He brought along flour to feed the starving, but was basically held captive once he and his family arrived. • Catholic Church Reforms • The new assembly sold off Catholic landholdings • Bishops and priests were to be elected by the people and the government would control the church • Many Catholics became enemies of the Revolution

  25. Key Events • A New Constitution • New constitution set up a limited monarchy which would allow a king but a Legislative Assembly would make the laws. • The Assembly would have 745 representatives and only affluent members of society would be elected • Only men over 25 who paid a specific amount in taxes could vote. • The Paris Commune • After war with Austria, members of society were again upset with the king and established a commune, took the king captive, and power passed from the National Assembly to the Paris Commune

  26. Key Events • Move to Radicalism • After gaining power, the Paris Commune sought revenge on those who had aided the king…thousands were caught and murdered. • King Louis XVI was beheaded by the Guillotine

  27. Radicalization: new calendar, closing of churches, force priests to take wives, wear working class clothes, etc. The Directory

  28. Key Events • The Reign of Terror • Between 1793 and 1794, the new government set in motion an effort that became known as the Reign of Terror • This was meant to protect France from both foreign and domestic enemies • Close to 40,000 people were killed • When Guillotining proved too slow to kill so many, grapeshot was used. Some were sunk in barges. • Robespierre became obsessed with ridding France of any “corrupt” elements. Many deputies were against Robespierre and they rallied enough votes to condemn him. He was guillotined in 1794.

  29. The Convention / “Reign of Terror” / Guillotine / C.P.S.

  30. Key Events • The Directory • After Robespierre was killed, a new government called The Directory came to power. • They had two houses, with approx. 750 representatives. This was an era of corruption. • Eventually this led to a Coupe D’etat led by the popular Napolean Bonaparte.

  31. Consul / Emperor for Life Napoleon Bonaparte Concordat / Civil Code

  32. Revolutionary Re-enactments • PROMPT: • Based on the stated goals, analyze to what degree the French Revolution might be considered a “success”. Additionally, assess to what degree the revolution follows the Crane Brinton model of revolution.

  33. Revolutionary Re-enactments • PROMPT: • Based on the stated goals, analyze to what degree the _______ revolution might be considered a “success”. Additionally, assess to what degree the revolution follows the Crane Brinton model of revolution. • Working with a group of 4-8 members, you will research, storyboard, screenplay, and perform a reenactment that portrays one of the revolutions referenced below.  • REENACTMENT REVOLUTIONS: • French Revolution (Whole Class / 1789-?) • Haitian Revolution (1791-?) • Mexican Revolution (1910 -?) • Chinese Revolution (1911-?) • Russian Revolution (1917-?) • Cuban Revolution (1953-?) • Iranian Revolution (1979-?)

  34. gens de couleur 01/01/1804: Republic of Haiti Touissant L’Ouverture

  35. Simon Boliviar Gran Columbia Father Hidalgo / 1810-1821 /Mexican Indp.

  36. Seneca Falls Convention, NY, 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft

  37. Frederick Douglas Abolitionism William Wilberforce St. Helena

  38. The Declaration of the Rights of Woman, 1791 Preamble • Man, are you capable of being just? It is a woman who poses the question; you will not deprive her of that right at least. Tell me, what gives you sovereign empire to oppress my sex? Your strength? Your talents? Article I • Woman is born free and lives equal to man in her rights. Social distinctions can be based only on the common utility. Article IV • Liberty and justice consist of restoring all that belongs to others; thus, the only limits on the exercise of the natural rights of woman are perpetual male tyranny; these limits are to be reformed by the laws of nature and reason. Article VII • No woman is an exception; she is accused, arrested, and detained in cases determined by law. Women, like men, obey this rigorous law. Postscript • Woman, wake up; the toxin of reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights.

  39. Otto von Bismark: realpolitick, blood and iron, 1871 Nationalism Germania Giuseppe Garibaldi.

  40. 26: Revolutions in the Atlantic World ANALYSIS: What specific ways did the ideals of the Enlightenment challenge long-held assumptions about government and social order? What was the impact of the ideals of the Enlightenment and the events of the revolutionary era on the status of women? What are the characteristics of political and social revolutions? How do we determine the “success” of a revolution? Are there predictable patterns we can use to analyze them? What role does nationalism play in national identity in revolution and in the modern world? How does political nationalism differ from cultural nationalism? And what is the place of minorities such as the Jews within this new concept of nationality?

  41. 26: Revolutions in the Atlantic World • New Governments • Vastly different governments • United States, France, and Latin America • American Revolution • French Revolution • Haitian Revolution • Mexican Independence • Based on written constitutions, statements of individual rights, and elected assemblies • Articles of Confederation / Declaration of Independence / Constitution • Continental Congress • Constitutional Convention • Congress

  42. 26: Revolutions in the Atlantic World • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen • National Assembly (June 1789 • Tennis Court Oath • Bastille Day 14 July • "Liberty, equality, and fraternity" • The Convention • Radical Jacobins dominated the Convention in 1793-94 in a "reign of terror" • Revolutionary changes: in religion, dress, calendar, women's rights • Directory • A conservative reaction against the excesses of the Convention • Executed the Jacobin leader Robespierre, July 1794

  43. Revolutionary Re-enactments • Revolutionary Research Criteria: • GOALS • Consider PERSIA categories to break it down • MAJOR EVENTS • 5-10 that reference “plot line” of revolution • KEY PLAYERS • Important individuals from BOTH sides of the fray • KEY VOCABULARY • What terms and concepts must people know to be fluent in the language of your revolution? • OUTCOME/SUCCESS • Did they achieve stated goals? Does this revolution follow the model we’ve studied?

  44. Revolutionary Re-enactments • PROMPT: • Based on the stated goals, analyze to what degree the _______ revolution might be considered a “success”. Additionally, assess to what degree the revolution follows the Crane Brinton model of revolution. • Working with a group of 4-8 members, you will research, storyboard, screenplay, and perform a reenactment that portrays one of the revolutions referenced below.  • REENACTMENT REVOLUTIONS: • French Revolution (Whole Class / 1789-?) • Haitian Revolution (1791-?) • Mexican Revolution (1910 -?) • Chinese Revolution (1911-?) • Russian Revolution (1917-?) • Cuban Revolution (1953-?) • Iranian Revolution (1979-?)

  45. Chapter 30: Big Ideas • Uneven Social Progress • Some changes profound and permanent • abolition of feudal rights and obligations in France, were • Other changes came more slowly and piecemeal • abolition of slavery in the Americas • political power generally the privilege of men of property • only Haiti empowered all men regardless of race • Equal rights for women: no momentum until late in the nineteenth century. • Women used logic of Locke to argue for women's rights • Mary Astell attacked male dominance in the family • Mary Wollstonecraft • Vindication of the Rights of Woman • women possessed same natural rights as men • Mother of Mary Shelley: Frankenstein

  46. 26: Revolutions in the Atlantic World • Nationalism • popular sovereignty gave voice to a new form of identity • based on notions common cultural and historic experience • Cultural nationalism: an expression of national identity • Emphasized common historical experience • Used folk culture and literature to illustrate national spirit (Volkgiest) • Political nationalism more intense in the nineteenth century • Demanded loyalty and solidarity from members of the national group • Minorities sought independence as a national community • like the Greeks within the Ottoman empire • Scattered cultural groups like the Italians and the Germans created new states to house their national identities. • Young Italy formed by Giuseppe Mazzini • Otto Von Bismark (1871) • Blood and iron, “realpolitik”

  47. 26: Revolutions in the Atlantic World • The consolidation of national states in Europe • Zionism: Jewish nationalism as a response to widespread European anti-Semitism • Movement founded by Theodor Herzl to create a Jewish state in Palestine • Jewish state of Israel finally created in 1948 • Map Study • American Revolution & Napoleonic Europe: Bentley 3rd.

  48. Production Tools Understanding the Basics Must know your revolution. Fill out this sheet with your group before any other work proceeds Storyboards Graphic interpretation of video Example 1 ; Example 2 ; Example 3 Blank Sheets/Format Screen Plays Add direction and dialogue Uses specific format Example 1 ; Example 2; Example 3