Influence of human factors and affective technology in utilitarian mobile applications
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Influence of human factors and affective technology in utilitarian mobile applications. Erkki Kurkinen [email protected] +358400247680.

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Influence of human factors and affective technology in utilitarian mobile applications

Influence of human factors and affective technologyin utilitarian mobile applications

Erkki Kurkinen

[email protected]


- dissertation supervisor: prof Pekka Neittaanmäki- format: collection of papers- status of this plan: draft research plan- time schedule: started Jan 2010, final ~2012

My cv

MSc in 1982 in Technical University of Tampere (computertechnology)

Additionalstudies in University of Oulu (mathematics, physics, theoreticalphysics)

Career in Nokia Corp. up to 2009 in production, R&D, productmarketing, sales, systemdevelopment, concepting

In severalpositions in several international businesses: telecommunication, TETRA, mobile networks, multimedia devices

Now: senior researcher and PhDstudent in Scope program in Faculty of IT in JYU


  • Userbehaviour in accepting new technology (computers, tv, IT- systems) hasbeenstudiedsince 50-60’s

  • Mobile technologyuserstudiesdonesince 80’s

  • Traditionallytherehavebeenspesificresearchmethods for differentusertypes (i.e. hedonicusers, utilitarianusers)

    • PEOU=percievedease of use

    • PU= percievedusability

    • CA =cognitive absorption

    • TAM, TAM2 =technicalacceptancemodel

  • Currently, models for customeracceptance in mobile applicationsarebeingdeveloped as well in the community

  • Utilitarianuse (police) is assumed to getcloser to the hedonicuse (consumer) = one of the hypotheses in thisresearch

  • In thisresearch the goal is to create new methods for technologyacceptance for utilitarianusershavingelementsfromexistingmodelsfrombothusertypes and use in empiricaltests to provehypotheses


  • Utilitarianuser

    • Device, serviceorapplication is used for increasingtaskperformance, professionaluse (in thisstudypolice and fire)

    • Benefit is external of the systemitself

  • Hedonicuser

    • Device, serviceorappplication is used for pleasure and enjoy; systemprovidesvalue to the user (consumer)

    • Benefit is internal to system

  • Human factor

    • physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior which is specific to humans and influences functioning of technological systems

Definitions cont
Definitions (cont.)

  • Affectivetechnology

    • Technology that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotion and other affective phenomena

  • Userexperience

    • a person's perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service (ISO 9241-210)

Traditional acceptance models



Sketch of a new acceptance model development
Sketch of a new acceptancemodeldevelopment



New models






Research goals

  • Researchquestions:

    • What are the users experiences of the utilitarian users of the mobile applications ?

    • What type of attractions (if any) there are in the devices and applications for the utilitarian users ?

    • Can an utilitarian mobile device be affective (in positive sense) making the user to use the application more often and with pleasure ?

    • Can a nicely working mobile device or application encourage the user to use the service more and more and take everything out of it ?

    • Can a nicely working mobile device or application encourage the utilitarian user to enjoy doing her/his duties ?

    • Can a nicely working mobile device or application get the utilitarian user to do her/his duties more effectively

    • What kind of device, service or application can give answers to all previous questions ?

Preliminary hypotheses

H1: Utilitarianuse is gettinginfluencesfromhedonicuse

H2: Utilitarianuserscanenjoy of the interactionsnotdissimilar to hedonicusers

H3: Intention to use the utilitariansystemwillremarkablygrowafterintegratinghedonicfeatures into it

H4: Utilitarianuserscanremarkablybenefitfromhedonicfeatures in theirsystems

User studies






System in use

User studies1

  • Police users

    • Finland (Vaasa police, Police College in Tampere,Jkl)

    • UK (Wiltshire, Hertfordshire)

  • Firedepartments

    • Emergency Service College (Pelastusopisto) in Kuopio

    • Los Angeles Firedepartment

Current state

  • 2 conferencepapers in 2 conferences (ISCRAM, IDRC) preseted

  • Firstuserstudy on going

    • Vaasa police

    • 1st systemundertest: barcodebasedworkflow and workallocationsystem (Upcode Oy application + Nokia E75)

    • 3 x 3 weekssessions, eachwithseparateapplications

  • Ourown Scope applicationsdevelopmentongoing, userstudies to startsoon

    • Userexperiencedemonstrators

      • Mobile policestation in a vehicle + multimedia device

      • Use of semanticcontent

      • Use of mobile agents

    • Sumoserver + mobile clients

      • Social media type (closedsystem)

      • Location

      • Chat, images, videos, voice & documentstorage

Benefits of the study results
Benefits of the studyresults

Adds the understanding of the intentions to use and accepttechnology of the utilitarianusers

Helpsservice/device R&D developentwork in mitigatingcustomeracceptancerisks in development of new sevices and products

Gives new tools for utilitariancustomers to evaluate and minimisetheirownrisk on introduction and utlization of new services

Givestools for the design thinking-type of development of IT systems


Utilitarianuserswillgetmore and morefeatures for their ICT systemswhicharebetterused and known in hedonicsystems

Acceptancemodelsneed to bechanged as well

In thisresearch new acceptancemodelswillbedevelopedcombiningthesetwousertypes to understandbetter the acceptanceprocedure

Allthis is for the benefit of utilitarianusers


Davis Fred D. PercievedEase of Use and userAcceptance of InformationTechnology, MIS Quarterly, Vol 13, No 3, pp. 319-340, 1989

Davos Fred D., Bagozzi Richard P., Warshaw Paul R., UserAcceptance of ComnputerTechnology:AComparison of TwoTheroreticalModels, Management Science, vol 35, No 8 pp. 982-1003, 1989

VenkateshViswanath, Davis Fred D., A TheoreticalExtension of the TechnoloicalAcceptanceModel: FourLogitudinalFieldStudies, Management Science, vol 46, no 2, pp. 186-204, 2000

Wakefield Robin, WhittenDwayne, Mobile computing: a userstudy on hedonic/utilitarian mobile deviceusage, European Journal of Information Systems, issue 15, pp. 292-300,2006

Chesney Thomas, Measuring the Context of Information Systems use, Journal of InformationTechnology Management, vol 14, no 3, 2008

Pedersen P.E., Adoption of Mobile Internet Services:AnExplantoryStudy of Mobile Commerce EarlyAdaptors, Journal of OrgaizationalComputing and Electronic Commerce 15 (2), 2003-222, 2005

Kaasinen Eija, UserAcceptance of Mobile Services - value, ease of use, trust and ease of adaption, VTT publications 566,2005

A Design Thinking Process Model for Capturing and Formalizing Design Intents, Zhaoyang Sun, Jihong Liu, Proceedings of ISCID 08, International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design, 2008