Hieronymus Bosch Hieronymus, or Jerome, Bosch, b. c.1450, d. August 1516, spent his entire artistic career in the small Dutch town of Hertogenbosch, from which he derived his name. The Extraction of the Stone of Madness (The Cure of Folly)c. 1475-80 (200 Kb); Oil on board, 48 x 35 cm (18 7/8 x 13 3/4"); Museo del Prado, Madrid Removing "stones" from the head was a fairly common medieval operation; however, for some reason Bosch has painted a flower as the object being removed
c.1485 (50 Kb); Prado, Madrid The Seven Deadly Sins is a painted rectangle with a central image of the eye of God, with Christ watching the world. The Seven Deadly Sins, depicted through scenes of worldly transgression, are arranged around the circular shape. The circular layout with god in the centre represents gods all seeing eye No sin goes unnoticed. In the corners of the image appear the "Four Last Things" mentioned in late medieval spiritual handbooks: Deathbed, the Last Judgment, Heaven, and Hell, all of which are favorite themes of separate Bosch panels.
ParadiseLeft wing (180 Kb); 147 x 66 cm HellRight wing (180 Kb); 147 x 66 cm HaywainCentral panel (210 Kb); 140 x 100 cm
The subject of sin and its punishments was central to all of Bosch's art. Another famous triptych, the Haywain (c.1485-90; Prado, Madrid), contains a similar progression of sin, from Eden to hell, across its panels. In the central panel sin is represented through the metaphor of a large wagonload of hay for which a greedy world grasps. All the while, the wagon is being pulled by demons towards the right panel - which shows one of Bosch's earliest depictions of hell.
Bosch'smostfamous and unconventionalpictureisThe Garden of EarthlyDelights (c.1500; Prado, Madrid) which, likemost of hisotherambitiousworks, is a large, 3-part altarpiece, called a triptych. Thispaintingwasprobablymadefortheprivateenjoyment of a noble family. Itisnamedforthelusciousgarden in the central panel, whichisfilledwithcavortingnudes and giantbirds and fruit. Thetriptychdepictsthehistory of theworld and theprogression of sin. Beginningontheoutsideshutterswiththecreation of theworld, thestoryprogressesfrom Adam and Eve and original sin ontheleft panel tothetorments of hell, a dark, icy, yetfierynightmarishvision, ontheright. The Garden of Delights in the center illustrates a worlddeeplyengaged in sinfulpleasures. • In referencetoastrologicalalignments at the time thiswaspainted, a lot of theinstruments of torture are also musical instruments.
Creation of theWorldOuterwings (shutters), depictingthethirdday of creation (140 Kb)
Garden of EarthlyDelights (Ecclesia'sparadise)Central panel (280 Kb) TheEarthly Paradise (Garden of Eden)Leftwing (180 Kb) HellRightwing (180 Kb) Bird-HeadedMonsterDetailfromrightwing (320 Kb)
The unique vision of Bosch The extraordinary painter Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450-1516) stands apart from the prevailing Flemish traditions in painting. His style was unique, strikingly free, and his symbolism, unforgettably vivid, remains unparalleled to this day. Marvellous and terrifying, he expresses an intense pessimism and reflects the anxieties of his time, one of social and political upheaval. Very little is known about Bosch, which somehow seems fitting since his work is so enigmatic. We know that he adopted the name of the Dutch town of s'Hertogenbosch (near Antwerp) as his own, that he belonged to an ultra-orthodox religious community called the Brotherhood of Mary, and that in his own day he was famous. Many of his paintings are devotional, and there are several on the theme of the Passion. He is specially famous for his fantastic, demon-filled works, one of which is The Temptation of St Anthony.
Outer WingsGrisaille on panel (180 Kb), 131 x 53 cm Left: Arrest of Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane Right: Christ Carrying the Cross
Central panelTemptation of St Anthony (210 Kb), 131.5 x 119 cm (52 x 47 in) Left WingFlight and Failure of St Anthony (190 Kb), 131.5 x 53 cm Right WingSt Anthony in Meditation (190 Kb), 131.5 x 53 cm
OdilonRedon Redon, Odilon (1840-1916). French painter and graphic artist, one of the outstanding figures of Symbolism. He had a retiring life, first in his native Bordeaux, then from 1870 in Paris, and until he was in his fifties he worked almost exclusively in black and white, in charcoal drawings and lithographs. In these he developed a highly distinctive repertoire of weird subjects (strange amoeboid creatures, insects, and plants with human heads and so on), influenced by the writings of Edgar Allen Poe. He remained virtually unknown to the public until the publication of J.K. Huysmans's celebrated novel A Rebours in 1884; the book's hero, a disenchanted aristocrat who lives in a private world of perverse delights, collects Redon's drawings, and with his mention in this classic expression of decadence, Redon too became associated with the movement.
Guardian Spirit of the Waters1878 (210 Kb); Charcoal, 46.6 x 37.6 cm; The Art Institute of Chicago
Spirit of the Forest (Specter from a Giant Tree)1880 (210 Kb); Charcoal and black chalk heightened wiith white chalk, 45.7 x 28.5 cm; The Woodner Family Collection, New York
The Crying Spider1881 (230 Kb); Charcoal, 49.5 x 37.5 cm; Private collection, The Netherlands
Cactus Man1881 (260 Kb); Charcoal, 49 x 32.5 cm; The Woodner Family Collection, New York
Mysteryundated (160 Kb); Oil on canvas, 73 x 53.9 cm (28 3/4 x 21 1/4 in); The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
During the 1890s Redon turned to painting and revealed remarkable powers as a colorist that had lain dormant. Much of his early life had been unhappy, but after undergoing a religious crisis in the early 1890s and a serious illness in 1894-95, he was transformed into a much more buoyant and cheerful personality, expressing himself in radiant colors in mythological scenes and flower paintings. He showed equal facility in oils and pastel. The flower pieces, in particular, were much admired by Matisse, and the Surrealists regarded Redon as one of their precursors. He was a distinguished figure by the end of his life, although still a very private person. Early charcoals (1878-85) Les yeuxclos (Closed Eyes)1890 (190 Kb); Oil on canvas mounted on cardboard, 44 x 36 cm (17 3/8 x 14 1/4 in); Musee d'Orsay, Paris
The Golden Cell1892 (190 Kb); Oil and gold metallic paint on paper prepared with white ground, 30.1 x 24.6 cm; The British Museum
Woman with a Yellow Bodicec. 1899 (240 Kb); Pastel, 66 x 50 cm; Museum Kroller-Mueller, Otterlo, The Netherlands
Opheliac. 1900-05 (210 Kb); Pastel on paper mounted on board, 50.5 x 67.3 cm (19 7/8 x 26 1/2 in); The Woodner Collection
Parsifalc. 1912 (160 Kb); Pastel on beige paper, 66 x 52 cm (26 x 20 1/2 in); Museed'Orsay, Paris
The Cyclopsc. 1914 (240 Kb); Oil on canvas, 64 x 51 cm; Museum Kroller-Mueller, Otterlo, The Netherlands
Francis Bacon Bacon, Francis 1909-92, English painter; b. Ireland. Self-taught, he expressed the satirical, horrifying, and hallucinatory in such works as Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944; Tate Gall., London). Oil and sand on canvas; Three panels, each 198.1 x 144.8 cm (78 x 57 in); Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Oil on canvas; Three panels, each 198.1 x 147.3 cm (78 x 58 in); Collection of the artist (?) Second Version of Triptych 1944
Head VI1949 (290 Kb); Oil on canvas, 93.2 x 76.5 cm (36 5/8 x 30 1/8 in); Arts Council of Great Britain, London
Study for Crouching Nude1952 (230 Kb); Oil and sand on canvas, 198.1 x 137.2 cm (78 x 54 in); The Detroit Institute of Arts
Study After Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X1953 (200 Kb); Oil on canvas, 153 x 118.1 cm (60 1/4 x 46 1/2 in); Des Moines Art Center, Iowa
Man with Dog1953 (150 Kb); Oil on canvas, 152.1 x 116.8 cm (59 7/8 x 46 in); Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
Self-Portrait1971 (200 Kb); Oiloncanvas, 35.5 x 30.5 cm (14 x 12 in); MuseeNationald'ArtModerne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
EDWARD MUNCH Munch Melancolía 1892-3 Óleo sobre tela Colección Rasmus Meyer, Bergen. Noruega.
Munch El grito 1893 Óleo sobre tela Galería Nacional de Oslo. (una de las versiones)
Munch Angst 1896 Litografías NY, MoMA
HANNAH HOCH • PHOTOMONTAGE
Hannah Hoch Belleza extraña (izquierda) / The Sweet One (derecha) Fotomontajes De la serie “Museo etnográfico” 1925-30