To survive in the global economy organisations must
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be flexible be competitive be innovative keep up with technological developments focus on quality be customer-orientated continuously improve. To survive in the global economy, organisations must:. total quality management multiskilling the learning organisation

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To survive in the global economy organisations must

be flexible

be competitive

be innovative

keep up with technological developments

focus on quality

be customer-orientated

continuously improve

To survive in the global economy, organisations must:


Recent organisational responses

total quality management

multiskilling

the learning organisation

business process re-engineering

knowledge management

team-working

recognition of human capital

Recent organisational responses


These organisational responses involve

new tasks

new skills

new knowledge

new ways of working

new roles

new relationships

new attitudes

These organisational responses involve:


Hence employees must

be prepared to change, undertake new tasks, learn new skills

be flexible

be able to work without prior experience, clear guidelines, close supervision

challenge traditional ways of thinking and working

think and work ‘outside the box’

Hence employees must:


The outcomes of learning

knowledge

skill

competence

‘know-how’ and tacit knowledge

attitudes

employability

The outcomes of learning


Theories of the process of learning

behaviourist

cognitive

information-processing

Theories of the process of learning


Elements in the process of learning

feedback/knowledge of results

choice of whole or part learning

memory

Elements in the process of learning


Fitt s stages of skills acquisition

cognitive

associative

autonomous

Fitt’s stages of skills acquisition


Dreyfus et al s model of skills acquisition

stage 1 - novice

stage 2 - advanced beginner

stage 3 - competent

stage 4 - proficient

stage 5 - expert

Dreyfus et al.’s model of skills acquisition


Bloom et al s classification of skills

knowledge

comprehension

application

analysis

synthesis

evaluation

Bloom et al.’s classification of skills


Kolb s learning cycle

concrete experience

reflective observation

abstract conceptualisation

active experimentation

Kolb’s learning cycle


Honey and mumford s learning styles

activist

reflector

theorist

pragmatist

Honey and Mumford’s learning styles


To survive in the global economy organisations must

Figure 8.1The Lancaster model of the learning cycle

Source: Binsted (1980). Reproduced with permission of MCB University Press Ltd.


Barriers to learning within the individual

ineffective learning skills/style

poor communication skills

anxiety

lack of confidence

unwillingness to take risks

fear or insecurity

Barriers to learning:within the individual


Barriers to learning within the organisation

lack of learning opportunities

unsupportive boss/lack of support

unsupportive organisational culture

lack of resources

lack of trainer/coach/mentor

lack of time/inappropriate time

inappropriate place

Barriers to learning: within the organisation


Positivist understanding of individual development

there is a universal, normative pattern of development

the environment is objective, orderly, stable

These assumptions lead to definitions of development in terms of sequential phases or stages, each with its own developmental task.

Positivist understanding of individual development


Alternative approaches to development

recognition of individual’s subjective experiences

significance of individual’s context

Hence focus on individual cases, recognition of the impossibility of generalising

Alternative approaches to development


Defining career

The experience of continuity and coherence as an individual moves through time and social space.

the ‘objective career’ - observable movements through organisations and society

the ‘subjective career’ - the individual’s interpretations of those movements

Defining career


Stakeholders in the concept of career

individuals moves through time and social space.

employers

career counsellors

intermediaries, such as employment agencies

the government

society at large

Stakeholders in the concept of career


Classification of theories of career according to focus on

factors external to the individual moves through time and social space.

factors internal to the individual

interaction of internal and external factors

interpretative and social constructionist perspectives

Classification of theories of career according to focus on:


Kanter s forms of career

bureaucratic (advancement; security) moves through time and social space.

professional (craft, skill, reputation; recognition in marketplace)

entrepreneurial (‘creation of new value or organisational capacity’; ‘have only what they grow’)

Kanter’s forms of career


Morgan s holographic organisation

building the whole into the parts moves through time and social space.

redundancy

requisite variety

minimum critical specification

learning to learn

Morgan’s holographic organisation


Requirements for effective mentoring

characteristics of mentor moves through time and social space.

characteristics of protégé

relationship between them

mentoring activities

Requirements for effective mentoring


Training adults belbin and belbin

reduce anxiety and tension in learner moves through time and social space.

create an adult atmosphere

arrange the schedule

correct errors

address individual differences

follow-up after training

Training adults (Belbin and Belbin)