QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. ¿ W hat is qualitative research?. Is a term used loosely to refer to research whose findings are not subject to quantification or quantitative analysis.
All marketing research is undertaken to increase the effectiveness of decision making. Qualitative research blends with quantitative measures to provide a more thorough understanding of consumer demand. Qualitative techniques involve open-ended questioning and probing
1. The moderator must be able to conduct a group properly.
2. He or she must have good business skills in order to effectively interact with the client.
Disadvanteges of Focus Groups: Unfortunately, some of the stengths of focus groups also can become disadvantages. For example, the immediacy and apparent understandability of focus group findings can cause managers to be misled instead of informed. Mutter says, “Even though you´re only getting a very small slice, a focus group gives you a sense that you really understand the situation.” She adds that focus groups can strongly appeal to “people´s desire for quick, simple answers to problems, and i see a decreasing willingness to go with complexity and to put forth the effort needed to really think through the complex data that will be yielded by a quantitative study.”
Other disadvantages relate to the focus group process. For example, focus group recruiting may be a problem if the type of person recruited responds differently to the isues being discussed than do other target segments. White middle-class individuals, for example, participate in qualitative research in numbers disproportionate to their presence in the marketplace. Also, some focus group facilities create an impersonal feeling, making honest conversation unlikely. Corporate or formal setting with large boardroom tables and unattractive or plain decor may make it difficult for respondents to relax and share their feelings.
Disadvantages of depth interviews relative to focus groups are as follows:
The success of any depth interview dependsmainly on the skills of the interviewer. And classicapplications of depth interviews include:
A variation of the depth interview is calledcustomercare research (CCR). The basic idea is to use depth iterviewing to understand to dynamic of the purchase process. The followingsevenquestions are the basis for CCR:
The cost of a focus group of this type is about 6.000$. That numberincludesevery-thing: recruiter, moderator, participantstipend, food, facility, reportwrite-up, and the cost of getting a fewobservers to the event. Divide 80 minutes of participanttalk time (the moderatordoesn´tcount) into the 6000$ expense, and yourcost per respondent minute in this case is 75$ (6000$/80)
If, however, a typical in-depth interview runs 30 minutes and costsbetween 400$ and 500$ (including recruiting, interviewing, participantstipend, and reporting), the cost per respondent minute is in the range of 16$ to 25$. The bigdifferenceresultsfrom the amount of time the respondentspendstalking, which is typically about 20 to 25 of those 30 minutes in an in-depthphone interview.
Thus, whenconsidering the cost per respondent minute, in-depth interviews can provide much greatervalue. Of course, the quality of both the focus groups and the IDI determines the real value of the research.
UsingHermeneutics: Some IDI researchers use a techniquecalledhermeneutic research to achieve their goals. Hermeneutic research that focuses on interpretation through conversations.
For example, a reseacher and consumer in conversation aboutwhy that individual purchased a high-end home theatersystem may discuss the reasons for making the purchase, such as holding movieparties, enjoying a stay-at-home luxury, or immersingone-self in sportingevents. The researcher may interpret “holding movieparties” as a reason for purchase to mean that without the system, the consumerwould not hold the parties at all, and so the researcher will return to the consumer for additionalinformation. Uponreviewing the data and talking more, the researcher and consumer determine that why the itemwaspurchased and why it is used (which may or may not be the same) are not as telling as how the productmakesitsownerfeel. In this case, the owner may feelconfident as an entertainer, more social, powerful, wealthy, relaxed, or rejuvenated. Talking and probing more about the use of the home theater, the researcheruncoversboth new data and new issues to address or considermoving forward.
The purpose of anonymity in a Delphi study is to exclude group interaction, which can cause a number of problems, such as group conflict and individual dominance. Dlphirelies on a structured, indirectapproach to group decision making; that is, participantsdon´tmeet, relying instead on statisticalaggregation of individual predictions and ideas.
Sentence and StoryCompletionTests: this is a projectivetests in which respondents complete sentences or stories in their ownwords.
CartoonTests: consists of twocharacters with balloons. Similar to thoseseen in comic books. But more specificallyit´s a test in which the respondentfills in the dialogue of one of twocharacters in a cartoon.
ConsumerDrawings: researchers somethimesaskconsumers to drawwhatthey are feeling or howtheyperceive an object. Thenconsumerdrawings can unlockmotivations or expressperceptions.
On the positive side, the use of focus groups will grow. Focus group research can provide data and insights not available through anyother techniques. Lowcost and ease of application will lendevengreaterimpetus to use online focus groups. Finally, the qualitative-quantitative split will begin to close as adaptations and innovationsallow researchers to enjoy the advantages of bothapproachessimultaneously.