Qualitative Research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. Not measurements, but WORDS! Instead of asking how many times someone purchased an item, you ask "WHY...?" Typically the samples are small, and not "random". Most frequent uses. Understanding basic issues why do people buy/use our product?
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Can’t extrapolate to the whole population
Volume of data
Complexity of analysis
Time-consuming nature of the clerical efforts require
A conversation on a given topic between a respondent and an interviewer
“Why do you like wide bodies?”
“They’re more comfortable”
“Why is that important?”
“I can accomplish more”
“Why is that important?”
“I will feel good about myself”
Projective techniques are unstructured and indirect forms of questioning which encourage the respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern.
Results of a Word Association Test with Alternative
Brand Names for a New Fruit-Flavored Sparkling
Possible Brand NameAssociated Words
Ormango Green, tart, jungle
Tropical Fruit Juice, sweet, island
Orange Sparkle Light, bubbly, cool
Paradise Passion Fruity, thick, heavy
Investigate teenagers’ attitudes to tea
Someone who drinks hot tea is ______________
Tea is good to drink when __________________
Making hot tea is _________________________
My friend thinks tea is _____________________
A loosely structured interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small number of informants simultaneously.
Frequently Use 56%
Sometimes Use 36%
Never Use 8%
Tiered viewing room with wrap-around mirror offers multi-perspective viewing.
Room is generously equipped with outlets so laptop computers can be utilized during session.
Strategically placed state-of-the-art audio and video taping offer unobstructed viewing.
Attached Conference Room offers closed circuit television viewing for additional 12-14 viewers.
(example-- ad/employee study): major themes were accuracy, value-congruence and effectiveness)
“The reader is cautioned that the findings reported here are qualitative, not quantitative in nature. The study was designed to explore how respondents feel and behave rather than to determine how many think or act in specific ways. Therefore, the findings cannot serve as a basis for statistical generalizations, but should instead be viewed as working hypotheses, subject to quantitative validation.”
“Respondents constitute a small nonrandom sample of relevant consumers and are therefore not statistically representative of the universe from which they have been drawn.”
Buick division of General Motors used focus groups to help develop the Regal. Buick held 20 focus groups across the country to determine what features customers wanted in a car. The focus groups told GM they wanted a stylish car, legitimate back seat, at least 20 miles per gallon, and 0 to 60 miles per hour acceleration in 11 seconds or less.
Based on the results, Buick engineers created clay models of the car and mock-ups of the interior. These were shown to other focus groups. The respondents did not like the oversized bumpers and the severe slope of the hood, but liked the four-disc brakes and independent suspension.
Focus groups also helped refine the advertising campaign for the Regal. Participants were asked which competing cars most resembled Buick in image and features. The answer was Oldsmobile, a sister GM division. In an effort to differentiate the two, Buick was repositioned above Oldsmobile by focusing on comfort and luxury features.
The tag line for the 1998 Regal, “official car of the Supercharged family,” was based on focus group findings.
Watching what people do
The information must be observable
the behavior is repetitive and of short duration
Approaches to observational research
Natural Versus Contrived Situations
Open Versus Disguised Observation
Structured Versus Unstructured
Human Versus Machine Observers
The researcher becomes part of the group
Examination and verification of product sale
retail audits: sale to final customer
wholesale audit: warehouses to retailers
Time and flow in retail stores
People Reader: reading habits
GSR: galvanic skin response
Pupilometer: pupil dilation
Store scanners read the UPC codes on products and produce instantaneous information on salesMachine observation