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Introducing the Environmental Policy Process, cont’d. A. Phases in the policymaking system B. Policy process as a “game” structure players opportunities for influence. Political-Social Environment. 1. Problem perception 2. Policy conception

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introducing the environmental policy process cont d
Introducing the Environmental Policy Process, cont’d
  • A. Phases in the policymaking system
  • B. Policy process as a “game”
    • structure
    • players
    • opportunities for influence
slide2

Political-Social Environment

1. Problem

perception

2. Policy

conception

3. Agenda

setting

4. Decision-

making

5. Political

execution

6. Political

impact

slide3

Phases of the Policymaking System

1. Problem perception: People need to perceive that a problem exists and that government has a role in addressing that problem.

slide4

Phases of the Policymaking System

  • 1. Problem perception
  • Policy conception: Proposing solutions
  • to identified problems.
slide5

Phases of the Policymaking System

1. Problem perception

2. Policy conception

3. Agenda setting: Communicating the

proposed solution to decision-makers

and gaining access for influence.

slide6

Phases of the Policymaking System

  • 1. Problem perception
  • 2. Policy conception
  • 3. Agenda setting
  • Decision-making: Institutional
  • processes for making policy decisions.
slide7

Phases of the Policymaking System

  • 1. Problem perception
  • 2. Policy conception
  • 3. Agenda setting
  • 4. Decision-making
  • Political execution: Implementation
  • of policies, or putting policy decisions
  • into effect.
slide8

Phases of the Policymaking System

  • 1. Problem perception
  • 2. Policy conception
  • 3. Agenda setting
  • 4. Decision-making
  • 5. Political execution
  • Political impact: Assessment of both
  • positive and negative impacts of a policy,
  • including feedback into problem
  • perception.
slide9

Problem Policy Agenda Decision- Political Political

perception conception setting making execution impact

Interest Groups, Media, Public opinion

Congress

Supreme Court

Problem

Areas

(eg, health, security, pollution)

President

Bureaucracy

Political Parties

F E E D B A C K

limits and advantages to using policy process models
Limits and Advantages to Using Policy Process Models
  • Assumes the system is rational; this often doesn’t reflect reality
  • Recognizes that policymaking is political, involving conflict
  • Draws attention to individuals and institutions
  • Highlights process dynamics
the game of environmental policymaking
The Game of Environmental Policymaking
  • What are the structure & rules of

the game and how do they affect

the outcome?

slide12

Structure of the Environmental

  • Policy “Game” in the US:
  • Fragmentation of authority
slide13

Fragmentation of authority

  • a. Federalism
        • – National Government
        • – State Government
        • – Local Government
  • b. Separation of powers
        • – Executive
        • – Legislative
        • – Judiciary
      • c. Checks & balances
      • d. Political power is dispersed & fluid
        • – Pluralism
        • – Elections
        • – Rights
      • e. Diverse interests & values survive
      • political loss
slide14

Implications for environmental policy in a system of fragmented authority:

  • Many “access points” to government
  • Policy requires broad political consensus to

advance

  • Easier to stall policy than it is to make it
  • Policy change tends to be incremental
  • Environmental Policy = Σ many policies
      • – Duplication & overlap
      • – Inconsistency & conflict
the game of environmental policymaking1
The Game of Environmental Policymaking

2. Who are the players and what tools do the players have to influence the game?

players in us environmental policymaking
Players in US environmental policymaking
  • Legislative branch

> House & Senate > Legislative Tools

-- leadership -- law-making power

* Majority -- budgetary power

* Minority -- investigative power

-- membership -- standing committees

-- committees and staff

-- staff -- approval of political

appointees

players in us environmental policymaking1
Players in US environmental policymaking

b. Chief Executive

> White House > Tools

-- President -- Executive authority

-- White House staff * decision making

-- CEQ * reorganization

-- OMB * executive orders

-- staff * hire & fire

> Executive Agency Chiefs -- Agenda setting

-- Political appointees