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  1. Theories of Cyberspace Regulation, andRegulatory concepts David VaileCyberspace Law and Policy Centre, UNSW Law Faculty d.vaile@unsw.edu.au http://cyberlawcentre.org/genl2032/02.ppt

  2. Outline Theories History of internet Technical basis Cyberlibertarianism ‘Self regulation’ Code as regulation Net Federalism Critiques The empire strikes back The people strike back? What’s new? News summary – class participation Regulation 3 wings of government Laws Disputes, courts Schemes Jurisdiction

  3. Laws, disputes, courts, schemes Key Concepts in ‘REGULATION’

  4. Regulatory concepts Jurisdiction Popular sovereignty Litigation funding Law reform Lobbying Online campaigning Talking to yourself Self regulation Industry codes 3 wings of government Laws Disputes, courts Schemes Jurisdiction Criminal v Civil Evidence / gosssip /‘facts’ ‘Proof’: onus, standard Risks and costs

  5. Law and IT, with communications flavour Theories of Cyberspace REGULATION

  6. 1. What is the Internet? What is 'cyberspace'? • Leiner et al A Brief History of the Internet http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/internet-51/history-internet/brief-history-internet • William Gibson Neuromancer, Ace Books, 1984. text http://lib.ru/GIBSON/neuromancer.txt • Study Guide for Neuromancerhttp://project.cyberpunk.ru/idb/neuromancer_study_guide.html

  7. 2. Technical basis - The Internet protocols (TCP/IP) and Internet applications • Roger Clarke, Gillian Dempsey, Ooi Chuin Nee and Robert F. O'Connor A Primer on Internet Technology (1998) http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/II/IPrimer.html • Clarke also provides a very simple introduction The Internet as a Postal Service: A Fairy Story (1998) http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/II/InternetPS.html • Cliff Green An Introduction to Internet Protocols for Newbies (1996) http://codewrangler.home.comcast.net/tech_info/internet_protocols.html

  8. 3. Origins and history of the Internet • The pre-commercial Internet (to 1996) • Vinton Cerf, Computer Networking: Global infrastructure for the 21st Century http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html • Howard Rheingold ‘Visionaries and Convergences: The Accidental History of the Net’ Chapter Three of The Virtual Community (1994) http://www.rheingold.com/vc/book/3.html • Robert Hobbes' Zakon Hobbes' Internet Timeline v5.6 http://www.zakon.org/robert/Internet/timeline/

  9. 3.2 The commercial Internet (since 1996) - The 'new economy'Kevin Kelly's ‘New Rules for the New Economy’ WIRED archive 5.09 (1997) http://www.wired.com/wired/5.09/newrules.html • The Law of Connection - Embrace dumb power • The Law of Plentitude - More gives more • The Law of Exponential Value - Success is nonlinear • The Law of Tipping Points - Significance precedes momentum • The Law of Increasing Returns - Make virtuous circles • The Law of Inverse Pricing - Anticipate the cheap • The Law of Generosity - Follow the free • The Law of the Allegiance - Feed the web first • The Law of Devolution - Let go at the top • The Law of Displacement - The net wins • The Law of Churn - Seek sustainable disequilibrium • The Law of Inefficiencies - Don't solve problems

  10. 3.3 Origins and history of the Internet • The Internet in Australia • Roger Clarke A Brief History of the Internet in Australia v3.1 (2001) http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/II/OzIHist.html • National Office for the Information Economy (NOIE) Current State Of Play (April 2002) http://www2.dcita.gov.au/ie/framework/benchmarking/csop Chapters 1-23 - statistics on Internet penetration and use.

  11. 4. Theories of cyberspace regulation 5. `Virtual communities' and self-regulation: Digital libertarianism • Johnson and Post - 'Net federalism‘ David R. Johnson and David G. Post ‘Law and Borders--The Rise of Law in Cyberspace’ 48 Stanford Law Review 1367 (1996) http://www.cli.org/X0025_LBFIN.html Shorter version: Johnson and Post And How Shall the Net be Governed? - A Meditation on the Relative Virtues of Decentralized, Emergent Law (1996) http://www.cli.org/emdraft.html

  12. 5.2 Self-regulatory mechanisms – ADR in cyberspace disputes? • Consumers International study http://www.consumersinternational.org/document_store/Doc35.pdf • OECD’s Guidelines for Consumer Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce (1999) • Online Ombuds Officehttp://www.ombuds.org/center/ombuds.html

  13. 6. Regulatory models for cyberspace 7. Lawrence Lessig – 'Code' as regulation • Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Basic Books 1999 http://code-is-law.org/ • Lawrence Lessig ‘The Law of the Horse: What Cyberlaw Might Teach' 113 Harvard Law Review 501 (1999)http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/works/lessig/finalhls.pdf • Graham Greenleaf, ‘An Endnote on Regulating Cyberspace: Architecture vs Law?’ (1998) University of New South Wales Law Journal Volume 21, Number 2 (Parts III – V) (http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/unswlj/thematic/1998/vol21no2/greenleaf.html) 'Electronic Commerce: Legal Issues For The Information Age'

  14. Lawrence Lessig – 'Code' as regulation (cont.)

  15. Lawrence Lessig – 'Code' as regulation (cont) • Critiques/commentaries on Lessig's arguments Reviews http://code-is-law.org/reviews.html • Karen Coyle, Information Technology and Libraries, September 2000 http://www.kcoyle.net/lessig.html • Mark S. Nadel "Book Review: Computer Code vs. Legal Code: Setting the Rules in Cyberspace" Federal Communications Law Journalhttp://code-is-law.org/nadel_review.pdf • Charles C. Mann "The Unacknowledged Legislators of the Digital World" Atlantic Unbound, December 15, 1999 http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/digicult/dc991215.htm

  16. Lawrence Lessig – 'Code' as regulation (cont.) • The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World Random House (2001)http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/future/ Tom Zillner, Information Technology and Libraries http://www.lita.org/ital/2103_books.html summary • Free Culturehttp://free-culture.org/freecontent/

  17. Other theoretical approaches to cyberspace regulation • James Boyle's critique of 'digital libertarianism’:‘Surveillance, Sovereignty, and Hard-Wired Censors’ (1997) http://www.law.duke.edu/boylesite/foucault.htm • Joel Reidenberg - "Lex Informatica: The Formulation of Information Policy Rules through Technology" (1998) 76 Texas Law Review 553-593 (http://reidenberg.home.sprynet.com/lex_informatica.pdf • Trotter Hardy's presumption of decentralised controlI Trotter Hardy 'The proper legal regime for cyberspace' University of Pittsburg Law Review, 1994, 55:993 http://www.wm.edu/law/facultyadmin/faculty/hardy-16.htm • Johnson and Post - net federalism

  18. Fast forward... • The empire strikes back: mega jurisdiction • The people strike back? Anonymity, social networks