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Zumdahl’s Chapter 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. History of Chemistry Mass & Proportions Dalton Theory Subatomic Particles Structure of the Atom Molecules and Ions. Periodic Table Symbols and Organization Naming Compounds Binary ionic molecule Binary covalent compounds Polyatomic ions.

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zumdahl s chapter 2

Zumdahl’s Chapter 2

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

chapter contents
History of Chemistry

Mass & Proportions

Dalton Theory

Subatomic Particles

Structure of the Atom

Molecules and Ions

Periodic Table

Symbols and Organization

Naming Compounds

Binary ionic molecule

Binary covalent compounds

Polyatomic ions

Chapter Contents
history of chemistry
History of Chemistry
  • Democritus (5th Century BC) atomic postulate
  • Lucretius (1st Century AD) “atoms and the void”
  • Priestly (18th Century AD) discovers oxygen
  • Lavoisier (18th) diamond=carbon
conservation of mass and chemical proportions
Conservation of Mass and Chemical Proportions
  • Mass unchanged in chemical reactions
  • Implies atoms conserved in reactions
  • Elements combine in definite, simple proportions by mass.
    •  Molecules are
    • atoms in definite
    • proportions! - Dalton
john dalton 1808
John Dalton (1808)
  • Elements are collections of identical, miniscule atoms.
  • Different elements differ in their atoms.
  • Compounds are combinations of different elements.
  • Under reaction, compounds rearrange their atoms.
subatomic components
Subatomic Components
  • J.J. Thompson (1897) “cathode rays are electrons” (e–) and finds e/m ratio
  • Robert Millikan (1909) measures e and hence melectron known at 9.1110-31 kg
  • E. Rutherford (1906) bounces  (He2+) off Au tissue proving protons (p+) in nucleus
  • F.A. Aston (1919) “weighs” atomic ions
  • J. Chadwick (1939) observes neutrons (no charge) by decomposition (to p+, e–, and ).
structure of the atom
Structure of the Atom
  • Nucleons (protons and neutrons) of almost the same mass (1.6710-27 kg) live in nucleus (R~2 fm).
  • Electrons occupy the full atomic radius (R~50 pm), shielding the nucleus.
  • Electron and proton count identical in neutral atom.
symbology of an atom
3579Br

Z=35 is bromine’s atomic number (count of protons)

A=79 is its mass number (count of all nucleons)

So 3579Br has 79–35 or 44 neutrons

3581Br exist too in equal #s.

So isotope average A=80

Symbology of an Atom
molecules and ions
Molecules and Ions
  • Atoms in molecules share (covalent) or steal (ionic) electrons to bond.
  • Stolen electrons lead to attraction of unlike charged ions (ionic bonding)
  • Directional electron “clouds” lead to molecular shapes.
  • Molecules can be ionic as well as atoms.
periodic table
Z increases linearly from 1H upper left

Groups (columns) have similar chemistry

Alkali metals, alkaline earths, transition metals, halogensandnoble gases

Periodic Table
naming compounds
IONIC

Cation named first.

If atom 1 makes only one cation:

Strontium chloride SrCl2

If atom 1 makes several cations:

Iron(III) chloride FeCl3

COVALENT

Less electronegative element named first

Most electronegative gets “anionic” –ide

Greek prefixes show proportions:

Dichlorine heptoxide Cl2O7

Mono prefix is never used for first atom.

Naming Compounds
polyatomic ions
Polyatomic Ions
  • Few polyatomic cations
    • Most common: ammonium (NH4)+
  • Many polyatomic anions
    • NO3– nitrate, C2O42– oxalate, HSO4– hydrogen sulfate, H2PO4– dihydrogen phosphate, Cr2O72– dichromate
    • ClO–hypochlorite, ClO2– chlorite, ClO3– chlorate, ClO4–perchlorate
naming exercise
Al2(S2O3)3

P4O10

Cu(NO2)2

NaMnO4

CS2

Fe2(CrO4)3

HCl (gas)

PH4BrO2

Aluminum thiosulfate

Tetraphosphorous decaoxide

Copper(II) nitrite

Sodium permanganate

Carbon disulfide

Iron(III) chromate

Hydrogen chloride

Phosphonium bromite

Naming Exercise