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Biological Weapons. Presented by Dr. Kenneth Alibek to the USAF Air War College November 1, 1999. HADRON, INC. Weapons of Mass Destruction. Chemical. Biological. Nuclear. TACTICAL. STRATEGIC. Factors in BW Effectiveness. Choice of agent Deployment method Formulation

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presented by dr kenneth alibek to the usaf air war college november 1 1999

Biological Weapons

Presented by

Dr. Kenneth Alibek

to the USAF Air War College

November 1, 1999

HADRON, INC.

weapons of mass destruction
Weapons of Mass Destruction

Chemical

Biological

Nuclear

TACTICAL

STRATEGIC

factors in bw effectiveness
Factors in BW Effectiveness
  • Choice of agent
  • Deployment method
  • Formulation
  • Manufacturing process
  • Meteorological and terrain conditions
types of bw threat
Types of BW Threat
  • Bacterial weapons
  • Viral weapons
  • Rickettsial weapons
  • Fungal weapons
  • Toxin weapons
  • Peptide weapons (a variant of toxin weapons)
bw deployment methods
BW Deployment Methods
  • Vector
  • Contamination of food and water sources
  • Aerosol (the most effective deployment method)
soviet biological weapons developed and approved for use
Soviet Biological Weapons Developed and Approved for Use

Tularemia

Glanders

VEE

Smallpox

Plague

Anthrax

Q Fever (<1990)

Marburg (>1990)

STRATEGIC

OPERATIONAL

biological weapons being developed late 80s early 90s
Ebola

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever

Argentinian hemorrhagic fever

Melioidosis

Lassa fever

Japanese encephalitis

Russian spring-summer encephalitis

Biological Weapons Being Developed--Late ‘80s/Early ‘90s

NATURAL STRAINS

biological weapons being developed late 80s early 90s1
Antibiotic-resistant (AR) plague

AR tularemia

AR anthrax

Antibiotic- and sulfonamide-resistant glanders

Immune system-overcoming (IO) plague

IO tularemia

IO anthrax

Smallpox with VEE genes inserted

Biological Weapons Being Developed--Late ‘80s/Early ‘90s

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED STRAINS

types of biological weapons
DRY

Tularemia

Anthrax

Brucellosis

Marburg

LIQUID

Smallpox

Plague

Anthrax

VEE

Types of Biological Weapons
bw manufacturing capacities ministry of defense
BW Manufacturing CapacitiesMinistry of Defense
  • Sverdlovsk facility--anthrax
    • 100+ tonsstockpiled
    • Production capacity > 1000 tons annually
  • Kirov facility--plague
    • 20 tons stockpiled
    • Production capacity ~ 200 tons annually
  • Zagorsk facility--smallpox
    • 20 tons stockpiled
    • Production capacity ~ 100 tons annually
  • Strizhi (new facility)
bw manufacturing capacities biopreparat
BW Manufacturing CapacitiesBiopreparat
  • Berdsk facility--plague, tularemia, glanders
    • Production capacity > 1000 tons annually
  • Stepnogorsk facility--anthrax, tularemia, glanders
    • Production capacity > 1000 tons annually
  • Omutninsk facility--plague, tularemia, glanders
    • Production capacity > 1000 tons annually
bw manufacturing capacities biopreparat cont
BW Manufacturing CapacitiesBiopreparat (cont.)
  • Kurgan facility--anthrax
    • Production capacity > 1000 tons annually
  • Penza facility--anthrax
    • Production capacity > 1000 tons annually
  • Koltsovo facility--Marburg, smallpox
    • Exact production capacity unknown; dozens of tons annually
bw manufacturing capacities ministry of agriculture
BW Manufacturing CapacitiesMinistry of Agriculture
  • Pokrov facility--smallpox, VEE
    • Production capacity > 200 tons annually
munitions submunitions delivery means
Munitions, Submunitions, Delivery Means
  • Aviation bombs with “biological” bomblets for strategic and medium bombers
  • Spray tanks installed on medium bombers
  • Multiwarhead ballistic missiles with bomblet warheads
  • Cruise missiles with special disseminating devices (under development)
epidemiological pattern of smallpox weapon
Epidemiological Pattern of Smallpox Weapon

New foci of

secondary infection

Contaminated zone

Infected zone

Zone of initial

explosion

epidemiological pattern of tularemia weapon
Epidemiological Pattern of Tularemia Weapon

Contaminated zone

Infected zone

Zone of initial

explosion

epidemiological pattern of plague weapon
Epidemiological Pattern of Plague Weapon

New foci of

secondary infection

Contaminated zone

Infected zone

Zone of initial

explosion

epidemiological pattern of anthrax weapon
Epidemiological Pattern of Anthrax Weapon

Contaminated zone

Zone of initial

explosion

Infected zone

modes of infection
Modes of Infection

PRIMARY AEROSOL

  • Caused by aerosols that form immediately after dissemination
  • Affect “target objects” before sedimentation

SECONDARY AEROSOL

  • Caused by aerosols which have already sedimented, but have aerosolized again due to wind or activity (building ventilation, vehicular activity, street cleaning, maintenance, etc.)
modes of infection cont
Modes of Infection (cont.)

SECONDARY DROPLET

  • Caused by droplet aerosols secreted by people who were infected by primary or secondary aerosols
  • Seen only with agents contagious by respiratory droplet infection

SECONDARY NON-AEROSOL

  • Transmitted by infected animals (rodents, insect parasites) directly or via objects, food or water, OR
  • Transmitted by contaminated objects (without involving aerosolization)
effectiveness of the ussr s bw
Effectiveness of the USSR’s BW
  • Specific expenditure value (Q50) = amount of BW required to affect 50% of the population evenly distributed over one square kilometer (open area)
  • Smallpox, anthrax, tularemia, plague, VEE, glanders: Q50 ~ 3-5 kg/km2
  • Marburg, dry form (and theoretically dry Ebola): Q50 ~ 1 kg/km2
current defenses against biological weapons
Current Defenses AgainstBiological Weapons
  • Physical:
  • Early Detection
    • Limited Capability
  • Protective Gear
    • Inadequate
    • Unrealistic
current defenses against biological weapons1
Current Defenses AgainstBiological Weapons

Medical:

  • Vaccines
    • Available for < 10% of known agents
    • Genetic engineering can render ineffective
    • Weeks / months to become effective
    • Supplies inadequate
    • Not cost effective
  • Pre-treatment
    • Depends on luck
  • Treatment
    • Marginal success
medical research targets
Medical Research Targets
  • Treating and preventing a broad spectrum of infections by modulating the immune system
  • Treating and preventing specific infections caused by biological weapons
dr kenneth alibek

HADRON, INC.

Dr. Kenneth Alibek

7611 Little River Turnpike

Suite 404W

Annandale, VA 22003

(703) 642-9404

kalibek@hadron.com