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How Did We Get the Bible?. How We Got the Bible. Lesson Three: The History of the English Bible. Am I A Soldier of the Cross? Isaac Watts 1724.

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how we got the bible

How We Got the Bible

Lesson Three:

The History of the English Bible

slide4

Am I A Soldier of the Cross?Isaac Watts 1724

“…Must I be carried to the skies on flow’ry beds of ease, while others fought to win the prize and sailed through bloody seas?...”

slide7

Early Translations: Syriac

  • In the 2nd & 3rd cent-uries the Bible was translated into Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic used in the region of Antioch.
  • The most widely accepted version was called the Peshitta, meaning “Pure.”
slide8

The Translation of the Bible

Syriac

200s

Coptic

200s

slide9

Early Translations: Coptic

  • In the 2nd & 3rd centuries the Bible was translated into Coptic, the form of Egyptian in use at the time.
  • The Greek alphabet was adopted with a few added letters, under the influence of Bible translators.
slide10

The Translation of the Bible

Gothic

300s

Syriac

200s

Coptic

200s

slide11

Early Translations: Gothic

  • About 350 Wulfilas, began to translate portions of the Bible into the Gothic language of the Goths of Dacia.
  • Wulfilas had to invent an alphabet for Gothic in order to even make a translation.
slide12

The Translation of the Bible

Latin

200s

Gothic

300s

Syriac

200s

Coptic

200s

slide13

Early Translations: Old Latin

  • In the 2nd & 3rd centuries the Bible was translated into Latin, rapidly growing to be the language of the Roman empire.
slide14

The Translation of the Bible

Latin

200s

Armenian

400s

Gothic

300s

Syriac

200s

Coptic

200s

slide15

Early Translations: Armenian

  • In the 5th century Mesrop invented alphabets for Aremenian & Georgian in order to translate the Bible into these languages.
  • These alphabets are still in use.
slide16

The Translation of the Bible

Latin

200s

Armenian

400s

Gothic

300s

Syriac

200s

Coptic

200s

Ethiopic

500s

slide17

Early Translations: Ethiopic

  • In the 4th century the New Testament was translated into Ethiopic (or Ge’ez).
  • Jews had been in Ethiopia for some time.
  • The Old Testament was translated into Ethiopic well before this.
slide18

The Translation of the Bible

Slavonic

800s

Latin

200s

Armenian

400s

Gothic

300s

Syriac

200s

Coptic

200s

Ethiopic

500s

slide19

Early Translations: Slavonic

  • In the 800s Cyril & Methodius, two brothers, taught among the Slavs.
  • To translate the Bible they too had to invent an alphabet for their language, now called “Old Church Slavonic.”
  • Russian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet.
slide20

“Into All the World”

“And He said to them, ‘Go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature. He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who does not believe will be condemned.”

(Mark 16:15,16)

slide21

“How Shall They Hear?”

“How shall they call on Him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in Him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher?

(Romans 10:14)

slide22

The Teaching of Ezra

“So they read distinctly from the book of the Law of God; and they gave the sense, and helped them understand.”

(Nehemiah 8:8)

slide23

Jesus Was Proclaimed

  • Without cell phones.
  • Without the internet.
  • Without computers.
  • Without printing presses.
  • Without airplanes.
  • Without automobiles.
jerome ca 342 420

Jerome (ca. 342-420)

Trained as a boy in Greek & Latin classics and grammar.

Studied Hebrew in a cave for some time.

Found the Latin Bible texts of his day coarse.

jerome ca 342 42026

Jerome (ca. 342-420)

In Constantinople, served as the secretary to pope Damasus.

Damasus assigned him to work on a new Latin translation.

jerome ca 342 42027

Jerome(ca. 342-420)

Commenting on the confusing state of Old Latin Bible texts of his day, he once said…

“There are almost as many forms of the text as there are copies.”

jerome ca 342 42028

Jerome(ca. 342-420)

Commenting on Old Testament apocryphal texts said they were like…

“The crazy wanderings of a man whose senses have taken leave of him.”

Did not believe they were canonical.

jerome ca 342 42029

Jerome (ca. 342-420)

Traveling to Palestine and comparing different manuscripts, Jerome (with others) prepared the first critical Latin translation of the Bible in 405.

the latin vulgate30

The Latin Vulgate

Was written in Vulgar (i.e. “Common”) Latin, for the common man.

The Vulgate came to be viewed as the official “authorized version” of Western Europe for 1000 years.

c the latin vulgate
C The Latin Vulgate…
  • Was a translation. (The original Biblical texts were in Hebrew & Latin).
  • Was intended for the common man.
  • Represented excellent scholarship, but was not flawless.
c the latin vulgate32
C The Latin Vulgate…
  • Was a translation. (The original Biblical texts were in Hebrew & Latin).
  • Was intended for the common man.
  • Represented excellent scholarship, but was not flawless.
c the latin vulgate33
C The Latin Vulgate…
  • Was a translation. (The original Biblical texts were in Hebrew & Latin).
  • Was intended for the common man.
  • Represented excellent scholarship, but was not flawless.
test all things
“Test All Things”

“Test all things; hold fast what is good.”

(1 Thessalonians 5:21)

the possibility of apostasy
The Possibility of Apostasy

“For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine, but according to their own desires because they have itching ears…”

the possibility of apostasy36
The Possibility of Apostasy

“…they will heap up for them-selves teachers and they will turn their ears away from the truth and be turned aside to fables.”

(1 Timothy 4:3,4)

it is right to
It is Right To…
  • Make certain that copies of texts are accurate
  • Make certain that translations are accurate
  • This does not reflect a lack of trust in God or the inspiration of Scripture

In the days of Josiah the

“Book of the Law” was lost!

the bible in the middle ages
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • Only the wealthy could afford Bibles.
the bible in the middle ages40
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • All copies were made by a scribe, by hand.
the bible in the middle ages41
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • The common man was not encouraged to read the Bible.
the bible in the middle ages42
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • Bibles were so expensive they were chained to pulpits.
  • Roman Catholic church dominated Western Europe.
the bible in the middle ages43
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • The first Bible Luther ever saw was chained to a library wall.
  • The Bible in many ways was chained.
the bible in the middle ages44
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • Preaching was in Latin even when it was no longer spoken.
  • Latin had become the lang- uage of Europe’s scholars.
the bible in the middle ages45
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • The Latin Vulgate was the only Bible accepted by the Catholic church in Western Europe.
the bible in the middle ages46
The Bible in the Middle Ages
  • The common people were ignorant of God’s word.
the bible in the middle ages47
The Bible in the Middle Ages

This was rightly called the “Dark Ages”

slide48

Lack of Knowledge

“My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I also will reject you from being priest for Me; Because you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children.”

(Hosea 4:6)

slide49

Shutting Off the Word

“But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut up the kingdom of heaven against men; for you neither go in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in.”

(Matthew 23:13)

three things that changed history

Three Things That Changed History

  • The Printing Press
  • Christian Humanism.
  • The Protestant Reformation
three things that changed history52

Three Things That Changed History

  • The Printing Press
  • Christian Humanism.
  • The Protestant Reformation
three things that changed history53

Three Things That Changed History

  • The Printing Press
  • Christian Humanism.
  • The Protestant Reformation
papermaking

Papermaking

Although paper-making was invented in China in 105 AD, it did not make its way to Europe until 950.

The first paper mill in Europe was set up Spain in 1150.

This made book mak-ing easier and cheaper.

the printing press

The Printing Press

In 1452 Johannes Gutenberg succeeded in operating the first printing press with moveable type.

The first printed publication was a papal indulgence – granting forgiveness of sins to the bearer.

the 42 line bible

The “42 Line” Bible

In 1457 Gutenberg began printing the so-called “42 Line” Bible. A printed edition of the Latin Vulgate named for its 42 lines per page.

Typesetters took an entire day to layout one page of text.

christian humanism

“Christian” Humanism

From the 14th -16th centuries a move spread across Europe known as Humanism.

Unlike modern humanism which sees man as the sum of all things, “Christian” humanism, fostered an appreciation for what man could do with the abilities God had given them.

This movement led to an appreciation of classical learning (and texts) with a strong desire to look back to original sources.

desiderius erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus

In 1504 Erasmus read a work by Lorenzo Valla entitled Annotations on the New Testament.

Valla sought to look back to the original language of Scripture to overcome false concepts that had arisen over time.

desiderius erasmus59

Desiderius Erasmus

Erasmus was intrigued and set himself to the task of comparing manuscripts of the Greek New Testament to analyze the text.

In 1516 Erasmus published the first critical edition of the Greek NT with the Vulgate in a parallel column. In 1518 he replaced the Vulgate with his own translation.

desiderius erasmus 1469 1536

Desiderius Erasmus1469-1536

In the preface to his 1516 edition of the Greek New Testament says…

“I wish that the Scriptures might be translated into all languages so that not only the Scot and the Irish, but also the Turk and the Saracen might read and understand them…”

desiderius erasmus 1469 153661

Desiderius Erasmus1469-1536

“…Then I long that the farm-laborer might sing them as he follows the plough, the weaver hum them to tune of his shuttle, the traveler beguile the weariness of the journey with their stories.”

robert stephanus

Robert Stephanus

In 1550 Robert Estienne (Lat. Stephanus) published a revision in Geneva of Erasmus’ text making use of more manuscripts.

Stephanus setup the chapter and verse divisions in use today.

Stephanus’ work came to be known as the “Text received by all” or Textus Receptus.

the protestant reformation

The Protestant Reformation

In 1517 a German monk named Martin Luther challenged the Catholic church’s practice of selling indulgences.

Although originally inter- ested in only reforming Catholicism, Luther’s ideas spawned a movement throughout Europe which rejected the authority of Rome.

luther s bible

Luther’s Bible

A motto of this reformation was sola scriptura “the Scriptures alone.”

In 1522, using Erasmus’ Greek NT Luther made the first translation of the NT in German from the original Greek.

This became the Bible of many Protestants and fueled the desire of other reformers to possess the Bible in their own tongue.

martin luther 1483 1546

Martin Luther1483-1546

Commenting on the Bible, said…

“No clearer Book has been written in this wide world than the Holy Scriptures. Compared with all other books it is like the sun over all other lights…”

martin luther 1483 154666

Martin Luther1483-1546

“…Don't let them lead you out of and away from it, much as they may try to do so. For if you step out, you are lost; they take you wherever they wish. If you remain within, you will be victorious.”

the bible is sufficient
The Bible is Sufficient

“All Scripture is given by inspir-ation of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for corr-ection, for instruction in righteous-ness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.”

(2 Timothy 3:16, 17)

the bible is sufficient68
The Bible is Sufficient

“…From childhood you have known the Holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus”

(2 Timothy 3:15)

man needs no
Man Needs No…
  • Priest to interpret them
  • Council to define them
  • Additional revelation to understand them
  • Great Intellect to comprehend them

God knows how to Speak!

understanding through reading
Understanding Through Reading

“…When you read, you may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ.”

(Ephesians 3:4)

beginnings of an english bible
Beginnings of an English Bible
  • In 735 Aldhelm & Bede translated the gospel of John into Anglo-Saxon, an ancient form of English.
  • In the 800s King Alfred distributed Exodus, Psalms and Acts to the people in Anglo-Saxon.
  • No manuscripts of these works have survived.
the lindisfarne gospels
The Lindisfarne Gospels
  • In 950 a priest named Aldred wrote Anglo-Saxon translations above the Latin text of an older manuscript of the gospels origin-ally produced at Lindisfarne.
the wycliffe bible
The Wycliffe Bible
  • John Wycliffe, led a group of priests who believed that preaching should be done in the language of the people, not Latin. These were later called sarcastically Lollards – meaning “mutterers.” He died in 1384.
the wycliffe bible75
The Wycliffe Bible
  • In 1395 one of Wycliffe’s followers John Purvey, published the first entire translation of the Bible into English from the Latin. In 1408 it was outlawed.
  • In 1428, Pope Martin V ordered Wycliffe’s body exhumed, burned and the ashes scattered on a stream near his house.
the british throne

1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

1625

The British Throne

Henry VIII

1509-1547

Edward VI

1547-1553

Mary I

1553-1558

Elizabeth I

1558-1603

James I

1603-1625

Tyndale

1526

the tyndale bible
The Tyndale Bible
  • William Tyndale came to Cambridge shortly after Erasmus left.
  • He was very inter-ested in Erasmus’ writings and became skilled in Greek.
the tyndale bible78
The Tyndale Bible
  • In response to laws forbidding the translation of the Bible into English, William Tyndale went to Germany, where he translated the New Testament into English from the Greek.
william tyndale 1494 1536

William Tyndale1494-1536

To a one who was critical of his plan to translate the Bible into English –

“If God spare my life, ere many years pass, I will cause a boy that driveth the plough shall know more of Scriptures than thou dost.”

the tyndale bible80
The Tyndale Bible
  • Tyndale’s New Testament was published in 1526 and smuggled into England. Officials burned all copies they could find.
  • In 1536 he was arrested, strangled and burned at the stake.
  • His dying words were, “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes!”
slide81

The Tyndale Bible

  • The Tyndale Bible was more literal in some passages than some versions which followed it.
  • The Tyndale Bible introduced many words into English for which he could find no existing word (e.g long-suffering).
slide82

The Tyndale Bible

“But and yf I tarielonge, that then thou mayst yet have knowledge how thou oughtest to behave thyselfe in the housse of God, which is the congregacion of the livinge God, the pillar and grounde of trueth”

(1 Timothy 3:15)

the british throne83

1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

1625

The British Throne

Henry VIII

1509-1547

Edward VI

1547-1553

Mary I

1553-1558

Elizabeth I

1558-1603

James I

1603-1625

Coverdale

1535

Tyndale

1526

Matthew’s

1537

the coverdale bible
The Coverdale Bible
  • Miles Coverdale, also worked in Germany with Tyndale and supported Luther’s reforms.
  • In 1535 he published a complete translation of the entire Bible into English.
  • He used Latin & German texts for the Old Testament.
the matthew s bible
The Matthew’s Bible
  • In 1537 another friend of Tyndale, John Rogers, published another complete Bible, making use of some of Tyndale’s unpublished notes.
  • Rogers gave credit for the work to Thomas Matthew, but he is believed to have done most of the translation.
the british throne86

1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

1625

The British Throne

Henry VIII

1509-1547

Edward VI

1547-1553

Mary I

1553-1558

Elizabeth I

1558-1603

James I

1603-1625

Coverdale

1535

Tyndale

1526

Matthew’s

1537

Great Bible

1539

the great bible
The Great Bible
  • In 1537 Coverdale was commissioned by Thomas Cromwell, the chancellor of England to revise the Matthew’s Bible.
  • The “Great Bible” was published in 1539 with the sanction of Henry VIII and used Hebrew texts for the Old Testament.
cromwell cranmer
Cromwell & Cranmer
  • Thomas Cromwell, Henry VIII’s chancellor, did a great deal to move the crown towards allowing an English Bible.
  • He is pictured to the right of the King on the title page of the Great Bible.
  • In 1540 he was executed by Henry VIII.
cromwell cranmer89
Cromwell & Cranmer
  • Thomas Cranmer, was Archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Henry VIII. He also did a great deal to move the crown towards allowing an English Bible.
  • He is pictured to the left of the King on the title page of the Great Bible.
  • In 1556 he was burned at the stake by the Catholic Mary I.
the great bible90
The Great Bible

Cranmer

Cromwell

the council of trent
The Council of Trent
  • In response to the rise of Protestantism a Council of Catholic theologians declared on April 8, 1546 that the Vulgate was the sole authoritative text in matters of faith & morals.
the clementine vulgate
The Clementine Vulgate
  • The council did acknowledge that the Vulgate was not without its imperfections and called for new revisions and corrections.
  • The final revision of Pope Clement VIII, in 1592, is the “Clementine Vulgate.”
mary i bloody mary
Mary I - “Bloody Mary”
  • A strict Catholic, Mary Tudor persecuted Puritans and other Protestants.
  • Public reading of the Bible in English was outlawed.
  • Thomas Cranmer & John Rogers, the translator of the Matthews Bible, were burned at the stake.
  • Miles Coverdale, barely escaped from her alive.
the british throne94

1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

1625

The British Throne

Henry VIII

1509-1547

Edward VI

1547-1553

Mary I

1553-1558

Elizabeth I

1558-1603

James I

1603-1625

Coverdale

1535

Tyndale

1526

Matthew’s

1537

Great Bible

1539

Geneva

1560

the geneva bible
The Geneva Bible
  • When Mary I came to the throne in 1553 and sought to reaffirm Catholicism in England, persecuted Puritans fled to Geneva.
  • There in 1557, William Whittingham, John Calvin’s brother-in-law, produced a revision of the Great Bible including Calvin’s notes in the margins.
the geneva bible96
The Geneva Bible

This was the Bible the “Pilgrim’s” used.

the geneva bible97
The Geneva Bible

Calvin’s Notes on Romans 5:12…

5:12 {10} Wherefore, as by {l} one man {m} sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, {n} for that all have sinned:

“(10) From Adam, in whom all have sinned, both guiltiness and death (which is the punishment of the guiltiness) came upon all…. (m) By sin is meant that disease which is ours by inheritance, and men commonly call it original sin…(n) That is, in Adam.”

the british throne98

1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

1625

The British Throne

Henry VIII

1509-1547

Edward VI

1547-1553

Mary I

1553-1558

Elizabeth I

1558-1603

James I

1603-1625

Coverdale

1535

Tyndale

1526

Matthew’s

1537

Great Bible

1539

Bishops’

1535

Geneva

1560

Rheims-Douay

1582

the bishops bible
The Bishops’ Bible
  • In 1568 Elizabeth I, unhappy with the Calvinistic notes in the Geneva Bible, assigned Matthew Parker to revise the Great Bible.
  • Parker worked with eight Bishops and produced the “Bishops’ Bible,” to be placed in every church.
rheims douay bible
Rheims-Douay Bible
  • By the late 1500s, Rome finally accepted that an English Bible inevitable.
  • In 1582 Gregory Martin published a New Test-ament for Catholics from the Latin Vulgate in Rheims.
  • The Old Testament was published in 1609 from Douay.
the british throne101

1500

1525

1550

1575

1600

1625

The British Throne

Henry VIII

1509-1547

Edward VI

1547-1553

Mary I

1553-1558

Elizabeth I

1558-1603

James I

1603-1625

Coverdale

1535

Tyndale

1526

Matthew’s

1537

Great Bible

1539

Bishops’

1535

Geneva

1560

Rheims-Douay

1582

King James

1611

the king james version
The King James Version
  • King James I, in line with an agreement he had made with Puritan leaders, assigned 54 scholars to create an “Authorized Version.”
  • Scholars from Oxford, Cambridge & West-minster worked in 6 groups, who compared and checked one another.
the king james version103
The King James Version
  • In 1611 (after 7 years), it was published being the first English version with no doctrinal notes.
  • It is estimated to follow 80-90% of Tyndale’s text.
  • In 1873 the Church of England issued a revision which is what is called today the “King James Version.”
the look changes
The Look Changes…

“Peter sayde unto them: repent and be baptised every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of synnes…”

Tyndale Bible - 1535 (Acts 2:38)

“Peter sayde unto them: repent of youresynnes, and be baptysed every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of synnes…”

Great Bible – 1540 (Acts 2:38)

the look changes106
The Look Changes…

“Then Peter sayd unto them, Amende your lyves, and be baptized everie one of you in the Name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sinnes…”

Geneva Bible – 1562 (Acts 2:38)

“Then Peter sayd unto them, Repent ye, and let every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sinnes…”

Bishops’ Bible - 1602 (Acts 2:38)

the meaning remains the same
The Meaning Remains the Same

“Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins…”

King James Version (Acts 2:38)

it is clear that
It Is Clear That…
  • God preserves His Word.
  • We must be diligent to guard the accuracy of translations and the texts behind them.
  • The Bible we read came to us by the shed blood of others.
  • The Bible still teaches the way of salvation.
slide109

The Preservation of God’s Word

“For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.”

(Matthew 5:18)

slide110

The Preservation of God’s Word

“...All flesh is as grass, And all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, And its flower falls away, But the word of the LORD endures forever...”

(1 Peter 1:24-25)

it is clear that111
It Is Clear That…
  • God preserves His Word.
  • We must be diligent to guard the accuracy of translations and the texts behind them.
  • The Bible we read came to us by the shed blood of others.
  • The Bible still teaches the way of salvation.
it is clear that112
It Is Clear That…
  • God preserves His Word.
  • We must be diligent to guard the accuracy of translations and the texts behind them.
  • The Bible we read came to us by the shed blood of others.
  • The Bible still teaches the way of salvation.
it is clear that113
It Is Clear That…
  • God preserves His Word.
  • We must be diligent to guard the accuracy of translations and the texts behind them.
  • The Bible we read came to us by the shed blood of others.
  • The Bible still teaches the way of salvation.