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Car-Sharing and Ride-Booking

Car-Sharing and Ride-Booking

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Car-Sharing and Ride-Booking

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  1. Car-Sharing and Ride-Booking An Introduction to the Services, Relevant Regulations, and their Associated Challenges for Airports Stephanie Box, Senior Consultant Airport Ground Transportation Association Spring Meeting April 28, 2014

  2. Agenda • Overview of Car-Sharing and Ride-Booking Services • Regulations: State and City • Airport Challenges and Responses • Conclusions

  3. Car-Sharing and Ride-Booking Services: What are they?

  4. Car sharing services compete with existing rental car companies Company Owned Vehicles • Company-owned vehicle fleets • Access to any vehicle in fleet using key fob, access card, or phone application • Started as short-term (hourly) rentals

  5. Car sharing services compete with existing rental car companies Company Owned Vehicles Peer-to-Peer • Personal vehicles rented to others • Often free airport parking for owner • Price typically set by vehicle owner

  6. Car sharing services compete with existing rental car companies Company Owned Vehicles Peer-to-Peer

  7. Ride booking services compete with taxicabs and limousines Company Owned Vehicles • Smartphone application hails licensed taxicab or limousine • Alternative to phoning a taxicab or limousine company

  8. Ride booking services compete with taxicabs and limousines Company Owned Vehicles Peer-to-Peer • Smartphone application connects customer to driver using a personal vehicle • Often called Transportation Network Companies (TNCs)

  9. Ride booking services compete with taxicabs and limousines Company Owned Vehicles Peer-to-Peer

  10. Why are customers demanding these services? • Convenience • One-touch bookings • One-stop car rentals • Reliability • Driver/vehicle displayed • GPS tracking of approaching vehicle • Automatic payment by credit card • Cost • Peer-to-peer services typically cost less • Others similarly priced to traditional services • Accountability • Two-way reviews promote high quality service rate passengers drivers renters owners

  11. Car-Sharing and Ride-Sharing Services are Expanding to Airports Previously Currently In Future • Primary markets: • Universities • Downtown urban areas • Customers became accustomed to using these services for local travel • Customers wish to use these services for travel to/from their local and destination airports • Companies are responding by expanding services to airports • More companies will seek to expand to airports around the country • Airports must be prepared for their arrival: ensure customer service, safety, and financial goals continue to be met

  12. Regulations: State and Cities

  13. Regulators have typically taken one of three approaches Restrictive Supportive Unaware

  14. California PUC created a new category for TNCs, September 2013 • Transportation Network Company (TNC) –An organization that provides prearranged transportation services for compensation using an online-enabled application (app) or platform to connect passengers with drivers using their personal vehicles. Supportive • Established 28 rules and regulations, including: • CPUC license to operate in California • Criminal background checks for drivers • Driver training program established • Zero-tolerance drug and alcohol policy • 19-point inspection of all vehicles • Picture of driver and vehicle displayed through application • Minimum commercial liability insurance coverage of $1 million per incident • Cannot operate at any airport unless authorized by the airport authority Source: California Public Utilities Commission website, accessed October 2013.

  15. WASHINGTON NORTH DAKOTA MAINE MONTANA MINNESOTA VT OREGON NH WISCONSIN MASS SOUTH DAKOTA IDAHO NEW YORK MICHIGAN RI WYOMING CONN IOWA PENN NEW JERSEY NEBRASKA NEVADA OHIO DELAWARE ILLINOIS INDIANA UTAH COLORADO MARYLAND WV KANSAS VIRGINIA MISSOURI KENTUCKY CALIFORNIA NORTH CAROLINA OKLAHOMA TENNESSEE ARIZONA ARKANSAS SOUTH CAROLINA NEW MEXICO MISS GEORGIA ALABAMA TEXAS FLORIDA LOUISIANA ALASKA Some authorities are limiting ride-booking services Restrictive City of Seattle Cap on active drivers per TNCsuspended by petition • Illinois • Rates limited to taxi maximum rates • Chauffeur permit • City of Austin • Advanced reservation • Chauffeur permit • High minimum fare City of Portland Advanced reservation • Miami • Advanced reservation • High minimum hourly rates Nevada High minimum hourly rates HAWAII

  16. Airport Challenges and Responses

  17. Accommodating new services while maintaining airport goals • Assure safe, secure transportation • Offer transportation that is available at a range of costs and service levels • Maintain efficient landside operations • Preserve airport revenues • Provide opportunities for new businesses while recognizing existing agreements

  18. SFO is one of the first airports at which services began operating 2012 and Earlier Early 2013 March 2013 Fall 2013 Enforcement • Cease and desist letters to six companies • Drivers of unlicensed vehicles begin to be cited and arrested • SFO sues FlightCar for non-compliance with regulations The Industry Develops • Many ride-sharing companies founded in the San Francisco Bay Area • SFO staff begin to receive requests from companies to operate on-Airport Regulation • CPUC adopts TNC regulations • RelayRides agrees to pay fees and follow SFO rules and regulations • Uber agrees to create a geofence around the airport Services Begin at SFO • ZipCar begins operations at SFO through Avis • FlightCar begins advertising free off-Airport parking and peer-to-peer car rentals

  19. SFO has implemented a TNC permit pilot program Today 2014 • TNC Permit Pilot Program • Drop-off only • Valid until May 31, 2015 • Must have CPUC permit • Provide TNC driver list • Vehicle tracking on-Airport • Per trip fees and monthly permit fees • Cease & desist enforced for TNCs not authorized by airport

  20. Other airports have taken a similar approach Oakland International • TNCs: • Sheriff department incorporating TNCs into training program • Citations given to drivers waiting in commercial vehicle hold area Boston Logan International • TNCs: No regulations in place • Car-sharing: Avis pays fees on all ZipCar rentals plus additional subtenant rent Los Angeles International • TNCs: Ticketed if identified at the airport; some vehicles impounded • Peer-to-Peer Rentals: RelayRides and FlightCar use off-airport parking operator spaces and buses; no agreements in place Phoenix International • TNCs and UberBlack, UberSUV: • Reached out to companies, sent rules and regulations, categorized them as pre-arranged • Uber implementing geofence • Designated hold lot for waiting vehicles; citations issued to those in other locations

  21. Summary

  22. Conclusions • Many companies with varying business models and markets • Companies are becoming increasingly common • Each type of service presents unique challenges for airports • Airports need to be proactive in determining how to best accommodate these businesses

  23. Stephanie Box