Most Appeals can be FALLACIOUS Most likely to be fallacious: • Appealing to pity: “I know you’re a good man, and I have a dog who’s very, very ill.” • Appealing to prejudice • Appealing to tradition: The 80th year of the Academy Awards! Least likely: • Appeal to Reason/Logic • Appeal to altruism (which is _____?)
Attacking the character • How can you support the health care plan of a man with that hair? • ad hominem – “to the man” • Attributing false causes • More young people are turning to cake theft because there are fewer & fewer Burger Kings every year. • Guilt by association • Michael Bolton’s a thug and we know how you feel about Michael Bolton – you must be dangerous.
BEGGING the question • circular reasoning • The security level for America has gone up, so we must be in greater danger! • Equivocating: • Using vague words like “freedom” or “justice” in whatever way you feel like to prove a point • I’m doing this for the right of the people
Opposing a straw man • Confusing the issue by addressing only an extreme minority within your opposition • Christians think everyone else is going to hell! • Red Herring • Trying to confuse the issue by bringing up something that has nothing to do with the argument • Sure, you like Clinton, but you also like menudo.
False Dilemma • If I don’t get an A it’s because Schwab hates me • Choice: Eitheryou get an A, or I hate you. • Slippery Slope (stepping stone theory) • One step always leads to a terrible outcome • If we let 1 country have nuclear weapons, then they’ll all have nuclear weapons and everyone will die. Is that what you want?