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Fallacy Lesson. Rhetoric and Logical Fallacies. Phase 1: Rhetoric. Logos, Ethos, Pathos. Logos. Argument that appeals to logic Examples: Statistics, arguments with proof, lists of features…. Ethos. Argument based on the reputation of a person or expert Example:

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fallacy lesson

Fallacy Lesson

Rhetoric and

Logical Fallacies

phase 1 rhetoric
Phase 1: Rhetoric

Logos, Ethos, Pathos

logos
Logos
  • Argument that appeals to logic
  • Examples:
    • Statistics, arguments with proof, lists of features…
ethos
Ethos
  • Argument based on the reputation of a person or expert
  • Example:
    • A doctor endorsed medicine
    • Celebrity endorsement
pathos
Pathos
  • Argument based on emotion; tugs at the proverbial heartstrings
  • “Pathetic”
  • Example:
    • The animal abuse commercials with pictures of sad eyed puppies and kittens.
assessment 1 2 for practice 1 to turn in
Assessment #1 (2 for practice; 1 to turn in)

Look at the text given and answer the following questions:

1. Who is the author/speaker? For what is he/she known?

2. What is the main idea, or topic, of the text?

3. What is the time period? How do the events of the time influence the text and the speaker?

4. Who is the intended audience?

5. What is the author’s point of view on the topic? What is he/she trying to get the audience to do or believe?

6. What persuasive strategies does the author use? (Logos, Ethos, Pathos) How do you know?

7. How does the author organize the text? (most important to least important, chronologically, etc.) How does this organization help the argument/persuasion?

assignment
Assignment:
  • Locate print ads (magazines) or multimedia ads (TV/YouTube)
  • Bring the ad to class (cut it out or bring on a flash drive)
  • Due date:
what are fallacies
What are Fallacies?
  • Fallacies are kinds of errors in logic or problems in reasoning
  • They should not be persuasive, but they often are…
  • They may be created unintentionally, or intentionally in order to deceive people
ad hominem to the man
Ad Hominem “to the man”

Definition

Dismisses the facts, and attacks the person instead

Hints

Name calling

Examples

Mueller’s books on shark attacks are worthless because he is a convicted embezzler and forger.

ad populum to the people
Ad Populum “to the people”

Definition

  • appeal to emotions of the reader
  • panders to popular passion or sentiment

Hint

“To the people”

Think patriotism, virtues, values, and sometimes tradition

bandwagon
Bandwagon

Definition

-it’s a form of ad populum

- An appeal to peer pressure and group identity

Hint

Think: Everyone else is doing it

plain folks and snob appeal
Plain Folks and Snob Appeal

Definition

Plain Folks- someone rich, famous and/or well-known claims to be ordinary

Snob Appeal- use/believe this and you'll be like the rich, famous, beautiful

examples plain folks and snob appeal
Examples: Plain Folks and Snob Appeal

Hint

Makes you relate (or want to relate) to someone because you are like them or want to be MORE like them

ad misericordiam appeal to pity
Ad Misericordiam(Appeal to Pity)

Definition: It appeals to the emotions rather than the mind of the reader- stronger appeal than ad populum

example appeal to pity
Example: Appeal to Pity

Example

For only pennies a day, you can save this child’s life (insert unhealthy, unhappy picture here)

slippery slope
Slippery Slope

Definition

an assumption that one step will inevitably lead to a second, usually undesirable step.

Hint

Watch for extreme assumptions

example1
Example

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7KQQcYEbMNM&feature=relmfu

division
Division

Definition: one, therefore all

OR

If all, therefore one

examples of division
Examples of Division:

Examples:

That high school student is so immature. All high school students are immature.

Or-

All the kids from that school are stuck up, so the kid who just transferred over must be stuck up too.

slide32
More
  • Questionable Cause: Since event B followed event A, B must have been caused by A.
  • Hasty Generalization: reaching a generalization based on insufficient evidence; without considering all of the variables
  • Appeal to False Authority: either the authority is not a subject-matter expert or there is no consensus among the experts, or both
how do i know if there is a fallacy here
How do I know if there is a fallacy here?

Is the purpose to PERSUADE?

YES look for fallacies

NO probably does not contain fallacies

Is the information TRUE and verifiable?

YES probably does not contain fallacies

NO text may contain fallacies

slide34

Does the information contain FACTS TO BACK UP THE GENERALIZATIONS?

YES probably does not contain fallacies

NO text may contain fallacies

Is the language LITERAL or FIGURATIVE?

LITERAL? Text may contain fallacies

FIGURATIVE? Text probably does not contain fallacies

assessment 2 2 for practice 1 to turn in
Assessment #2 (2 for practice, 1 to turn in)

Using two ads (print or video) answer the following questions:

1. What is the product being sold?

2. What is happening in the ad? What is the layout or storyline? Is there a particular focus in the ad? (e.g. bold print, bright colors, a central character, etc.)

3. How does the advertiser use the items from #2 to help persuade the intended audience?

4. Who is the intended audience? (be specific: teenage girls worried about acne)

5. What is the author’s point of view on the topic? What is he/she trying to get the audience to do or believe?

6. What fallacies are present in the ad? (give examples and name the fallacy) How do you know?

7. What persuasive strategies does the author use? (Logos, Ethos, Pathos) How do you know?

assessment 3
Assessment #3

Locate a print or video advertisement.

  • With a partner or small group analyze and then recreate (remix) the ad to target a different audience.
  • The original ad, the analysis and the remixed ad will be presented in front of the class.
the process
The Process:

1. Describe and/or show the original ad.

2. Name the product/service being advertised.

3. Explain layout and fallacies in original ad.

4. Create remixed ad, present it, and explain changes made in order to target the new audience.

5. Use and explain at least two logical fallacies in the remixed ad.

6. Use and explain Logos, Ethos, or Pathos in the remixed ad.

possible audiences include but are not limited to
Possible audiences include, but are not limited to:

Soccer Moms

Hipsters

Fashionistas

Tree-Huggers

Affluent (rich) consumers

Harvard Grad

Jocks

Celebrity/Socialite

Teachers

Etc.

  • Men (dads, single men, etc.)
  • Women (moms, single women, etc.)
  • Teenagers (boys, girls, both)
  • Children (babies, elementary)
  • Elderly
  • Texans
  • Minnesotans
  • Californians