Writing for research Svetlana Kucherenko National Research University- Higher School of Economics Saint-Petersburg, Russia
CHALLENGES FOR RUSSIAN STUDENTS • Analytical vs Argumentative Research Papers • The IMRAD format • Literature Review • Research Question • Substantiating claims
Discussion • How much do your findings fit into theories that you reviewed in the literature review? • What do your findings say about your research question? • Are there any alternative explanations? • Are there any limitations? • Can you suggest directions for further research?
Literature Review Summary Critique
Questions to Ask of Every Book • Has the author formulated a problem/issue? • Is it clearly defined? • How does the author structure the argument? • In what way does this book contribute to understanding of the problem under study? • What are strengths and limitations?
Example • I have focused in so much detail on Wartenberg’s theorization of power to show that his theory is truly superior to other theories on a number of counts. First, to develop his theory he examines in great detail about twenty other theories of power to bring to light their weak and strong points. Second, Wartenberg’s approach to developing a new theory of power is different from a traditional discourse when a theorist identifies faults in other theories and suggests new solutions to the problems addressed within the rejected theories. Wartenberg suggests a new manner of theorising social reality, for example, by moving from observation to theory rather than from theory to observation as it was previously done. As a result, Wartenberg thinks in categories that surpass the level of individual theories of power and brings to light faulty assumptions typical of strands of theories, for example he distinguishes theories according to their position on power as power-to and power-over.
Research Question • Stage 1: focusing the topic • Stage 2: statement of purpose • Stage 3: thesis statement • Stage 4: research question
Example II • I want to know why existing theories of power do not give an adequate account of workings of power in discourse • Most theories of power do not account for workings of power in discourse because they are mono-dimensional • Why do existing theories of power not provide an adequate account of workings of power in discourse?
Substantiating Claims • argument+evidence
Hedging • Sound cautious and tentative E.g. It means that=>This suggests that To reduce the risk of opposition