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Lecture 22 41. New Technology in Manufacturing. MAE364 Manufacturing Processes Spring 2005. Instructor: T. Kesavadas (Prof. Kesh) Associate Professor, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 1006 Furnas Hall.

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Lecture 22

41. New Technology in Manufacturing

mae364 manufacturing processes spring 2005

MAE364Manufacturing ProcessesSpring 2005

Instructor: T. Kesavadas (Prof. Kesh)

Associate Professor,

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

1006 Furnas Hall.

Teaching Assistants (more details later):

Govindarajan Srimathveeravalli Sridhar Seshadri

Manu Factus : Latin for ‘made by hand’


A Well organized method of converting raw material to end product

End Product: Value and utility added to output.

history of manufacturing
History of Manufacturing
  • Manufacturing started during 5000 – 4000 BC Wood work,ceramics,stone and metal work
  • Steel Production 600-800 AD
  • Industrial Revolution 1750 AD: Machine tools run by invention of steam engine
  • Mass Production and Interchangeable Parts
  • Computer Controlled Machines 1965
  • CNC,FMS systems
requirements of a good manufacturing system
Requirements of a good manufacturing system
  • Product should meet design requirement
  • Economical Process
  • Quality should be built into the system
  • Should be flexible and responsive to new technology
  • High productivity: Best utilization of man, material, machine, capital and available resources.
steps in modern manufacturing
Steps in Modern Manufacturing

Definition of product need, marketing information

Design analysis;codes/standards review; physical and analytical models



Conceptual design and

evaluation Feasibility study

Prototype production

testing and evaluation

Inspection and quality



Production drawings; Instruction manuals

Packaging; marketing and

sales literature

Material Specification; process

and equipment selection; safety review


Pilot Production

manufacturing of a paper clip
Manufacturing of a Paper Clip
  • What is the function
  • How long does it last
  • How critical is the part
  • Material Metallic - what type

Non metallic – plastic

  • Dimension Diameter of clip

Shape of clip

  • Method of manufacturing Manual


  • Function based design Stress, Strain

Life of clip


  • Style Appearance,Color,Finish


manufacturing of a bicycle
AISI 1010 welded tubing, assembly resistance welded and electrostatically painted

Aluminum alloy forging, polished and buffed

Forged aluminum tubing(alloy similar to 6063), polished and buffed

Manufacturing of a bicycle

AISI 1010,swaged and cadmium plated

AISI 1008,press formed resistance welded and painted

AISI 1020,forging and chromium plated

AISI 1010, luster finished coil stock,profile milled,resistance welded and chromium plated formed,welded and plated

AISI 1008, press formed,welded and plated

Cold drawn medium carbon steel,( similar to AISI 1035) bright zinc plated

AISI 1020 tubing, machine threaded and painted

AISI 1010,stamped and coined and chromium plated

Seamless AISI 1020 tubing swaged tube sections brazed into fork crown,painted

AISI 1010, stamped and chromium plated

Headed brass,nickel plated

AISI 1040 forging,carburized and chromium plated

Aluminum permanent mold casting,machined , polished and buffed

Case hardened forging quality steel parts, black oxide coating

Hardened high-carbon steel,thread rolled and chromium plated

AISI 1010,stamped and chromium plated

assignment 1
Assignment 1
  • Select a simple product of your choice
    • Try to analyze the different materials, processes, etc
    • Use library resources
    • We will discuss this in the class on Friday
selection of process topic to be covered
Selection of Process: Topic to be covered


  • Sand/Expandable Mold,Permanent Mold

Forming and Shaping

  • Rolling,forging,extrusion,powder metallurgy


  • Turning,Boring,Drilling,Milling,Planing,Broaching,Grinding
selection of process
Selection of Process

Unconventional Method

  • EDM,ECM,Ultrasound,High Energy Beam,machining


  • Welding,Brazing,Soldering


  • Honing,Lapping,Polishing,Burnishing,Deburring
objectives of this course and what is expected of you
Objectives of this course and what is expected of you
  • Manufacturing processes and fundamentals
  • Selection of appropriate process to meet design requirements
  • Effect of process parameters and variables on the quality of parts produced
  • Effect of material properties on a given process
  • Decision and methods for different product size and mix
  • Effect of design on manufacturability
  • Overview of computer aided methods in traditional manufacturing processes
Two methods of forming a dish shaped part from sheet metal

Left: conventional hydraulic/mechanical press using male and female dies

Right: explosive forming using only one die.


Upper die



work piece

Lower Die

Three methods of casting turbine blades

A: conventional casting with ceramic mold

B: directional solidification

C: Method to produce single crystal blade

selection of process depends on
Selection of Process depends on
  • Dimensional and surface finish requirements
  • Operational Cost
  • Design and strength requirements
  • Consequences of various methods
design for assembly
Design for Assembly
  • Design of the product to permit assembly
  • Possibility of multipurpose parts
  • Capability of manufacturing process to consistently produce parts which can be assembled without problem
  • Method or process of assembly

Automated Systems,Manual Systems etc

automation and impact of computers
Automation and Impact of Computers

Machine Control Systems

Computer Numerical Control machines, Robots,Machines,Processes

Computer Integrated Technology

  • Responsive to market change
  • Better use of process,man,machining management etc
  • CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design And Manufacturing
  • FMS: Flexible Manufacturing System
  • GT: Group Technology
  • VR: Virtual Reality
applied manufacturing gcse unit 3
Applied Manufacturing GCSEUnit 3

Aim of the Unit:-

To investigate the impact of modern

technology on the design and

manufacture of a range of products

applied manufacturing gcse unit 31
Applied Manufacturing GCSEUnit 3
  • Modern technology, includes…..
  • Production implications
  • Cost implications
  • Human resource implications
  • Socio-economic implications
  • Demographic implications
applied manufacturing gcse unit 32
Applied Manufacturing GCSEUnit 3
  • New technology has helped to develop design and manufacturing processes
  • New technology has improved the quality of products and services offered to customers

You will learn how:-

applied manufacturing gcse unit 33
Applied Manufacturing GCSEUnit 3
  • Information and communications technology
  • New components and a range of modern materials including smart materials
  • Control technology

You will investigate:-

the use of i c t includes
The use of I.C.T.includes
  • Sourcing and handling information and data, such as databases, spreadsheets and internet sites
  • CAD (computer-aided design) techniques
  • CAM (computer-aided manufacture)
  • Communications technology
  • Control technology
use of modern and smart materials and components including
Use of Modern and Smart Materials and Components including:-
  • Polymers, inc plastics, adhesives and coatings
  • Metals and composites
  • Biological, chemical and food products, modified ingredients and methods of preparation and production
  • Computer technology, inc microprocessors
  • Micro-electronic components
  • Textile technology, inc liquid crystal, coated fabrics and thermochromic dyes
the use of systems and control technology
The use of systems and control technology:-
  • To organise, monitor and control production including:-
  • Process/quality control and automation, inc PLCs
  • Robotics, including continuous operation, increased speed, etc
  • ICT as applied to integrated manufacturing/engineering systems, etc
the impact of modern technology
The impact of modern technology.
  • Range, types and availability of products
  • Design and development of products
  • Materials, components and ingredients
  • Safety and efficiency of modern methods of production
  • Improved characteristics of products, e.g. size, weight/density, ease of use, disposability and reclaimability
  • Markets for the products
advantages and disadvantages of modern technology
Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Technology
  • Changes in the type and size of workforce (social implications)
  • Changes in the working environment
  • Impact on the global environment and sustainability
investigating products
Investigating Products
  • Your teacher has gathered together a number of examples of the same product (*as appropriate to the course)
  • These products have either been produced at different times, for different purposes, within a price band, for use in different environments, etc
  • Examine each and record as much information you can derive and then compare with the accompanying checklist (* these should be obtained/produced locally wherever possible)
  • The role modern technology plays in the design and manufacture of the product
  • The technology or process it replaced
  • The benefits of using the technology
  • The implications of using the technology, for the product and the manufacturer
visit to modern manufacturing base
Visit to modern manufacturing base
  • You will be visiting Company “ABC”
  • This company operates primarily using modern technology
  • You will need to refer to the worksheet. “Visit to a modern manufacturing facility” to decide what questions you need to ask on the visit
  • Discuss with your teacher and other class members
how does the product work
How does the product work?

In terms of its:-

  • Purpose
  • Structure and form
  • Materials and components
  • Technology used
further considerations
Further considerations
  • Should manufacturers continue to develop and adopt new technologies?
  • Should manufacturers continue to improve their products?
  • Should they consider the workforce and the social implications of advancement brought about by technological advancement?
  • How much should they consider global implications of this advancement?
ncp info day 13 may 2011 brussels

NCP Info Day13 May 2011, Brussels

Factories of the Future

& Next ICT CallsDr Erastos FilosFoF ICT Coordinator


factories of the future fof context
Factories of the Future (FoF):Context


Part of the Recovery Plan

To help manufacturing, in particular SMEs, across a broad range of sectors be competitive after the Crisis is over


Industry-driven R&D projects

4 annual co-ordinated calls until 2013 between the two relevant FP7 Themes, ICT and NMP


R&D stakeholders of European Technology Platforms ARTEMIS, ENIAC, EPOSS, EUROP, NESSI, PHOTONICS21, MANUFUTURE

Technology providers & industrial users (large & SME), academic researchers

Total FP7 budget (2010-2013):

245 M€ (ICT) + 400 M€ (NMP)


state of the industry expected impact
State of the Industry & Expected Impact

Europe’s manufacturing

More than 25 sectors, 21 % of GDP (= € 6.5 trillion), 30+ million jobs

Crisis has reduced Europe’s production capacity

Export champions (but at risk) in machinery, automobiles, wind turbines, …

Largest global market share in automation & factory equipment

Under threat from low wage economies (eg mass-produced goods)

Chance to compete through high added-value products (eg quality, services, customisation, clean & energy efficient processes)

FoF ICT: Technology leaders to gain market share

Automation/industrial robotics & laser technology solutions for factory environments

Product/production design tools (eg software for modelling, simulation, visualisation)

Software for enterprise/supply-chain management

FoF ICT: European industrial end users to

Integrate latest technology into their production environments

Build on new competencies (knowledge, organisation, skills, business models)

Use technologies that enable energy-efficient and “waste-less” production


recovery plan objectives industrial competitiveness
Recovery Plan Objectives:Industrial Competitiveness

Supply side

  • Technology/manufacturing equipment suppliers to gain market share:
  • Automation/industrial robotics & laser technology solutions for factory environments
  • Product/production design tools (eg software for modelling, simulation, visualisation)
  • Enterprise/supply-chain management tools


Demand side

  • European industrial end users:
  • To integrate latest technology into their production environments
  • To develop new competencies (knowledge, organisation, skills, business models)
  • To use technologies that enable energy-efficient and “waste-less” production


Smart Factories:

Goal: More automation, better control & optimisation of factory processes

Means:Software, lasers & intelligent devices embedded in machines & factory infrastructure





PLM server






PLM agent


Factories of the FutureICT Vision

Factory productivity

  • Less waste
  • Less energy use
  • Faster time-to-market
  • Better quality

Virtual Factories:

  • Goal:To manage supply chains; to create value by integrating products & services
  • Means:Software to holistically interconnect & manage distributed factory assets; new business models & value propositions

Supply-chain productivity

  • High-value products
  • Keep jobs in Europe
  • Process transparency
  • IPR security
  • Lower CO2 footprint

Digital Factories:

  • Goal:To “see” the product before it is produced
  • Means:Software for the digital representation &test of products & processes prior to their manufacture & use

Design productivity

  • Reduce design errors
  • Better & efficient products
  • Less waste + rework
  • Faster time-to-market


2009 fof ict call on smart factories successful proposals
2009 FoF ICT Call on “Smart Factories”:Successful Proposals







Manufacture ofsustainable products

(a): Process automation& optimisation

Economic efficiency/productivity

(b): ICT & sensors for energy efficiency

(c): Robotics-enabled




(d): Laser applications


A.K 09


results of first fof ict nmp calls
Results of first FoFICT+NMP Calls
  • July 2009 July 2010
  • Success rate: 26% 19%
  • (25 funded (36 funded of 98) of 193)
  • Share by Org. Type:
  • - Higher Education: 23% 24%
  • - Private for Profit: 54% 50%
  • - Research Org.: 22% 24%
  • Share of funding of SMEs: 31% 29%
  • Countries of funded partners: 25 26


factories of the future 2011 call expected impact c onclusions
2010 Call
  • 35 M€
  • 8 projects

Smart Factories




  • 2011 Call
  • 35 M€
  • 8 projects
  • 2011 Call
  • 45 M€
  • 10 projects
Factories of the Future 2011 CallExpected impact & conclusions

“Digital Factories”

  • Reinforced European leadership in knowledge-driven platforms & tools for product development & manufacturing
  • Scaling and higher accuracy of digital design tools & simulation techniques
  • Accelerated product design & manufacturing, with a considerably shorter time-to-production & time-to-market

“Virtual Factories”

  • Higher management efficiency of networked & sustainable business operations.
  • ICT tools enabling the participation of SMEs in virtual factory environments.
  • New business models & innovation scenarios for a low-carbon economy.
  • FoF is:
  • Attractive to industry
  • SME-friendly
  • Of shorter term scope
factories of the future multi annual roadmap 2010 2013
Factories of the Future Multi-Annual Roadmap 2010-2013


Sustainable Manufacturing

ICT-enabled intelligent manufacturing

High-performance manufacturing

Exploiting new materials through manufacturing strategic-multiannual-roadmap-info-day_en.pdf


factories of the future beyond 2013
Factories of the FutureBeyond 2013?




2012 2013 Policies

FP8 proposalend ’11

FP8 launchearly ’13

MAFFJun ’11


2012 FP7 Calls




(45 M€)


(35 M€)

FoF Call

70 M€

9 July – 2 Dec 2010

Total ICT245 M€


July ’09 –Nov. ‘09


Obj. 7.1(40 M€)

Manuf. solutionsfor new ICTproducts

Obj. 7.2(20 M€)

Jul – Dec 2011


the double role of ict
for Manufacturing


Manufacturing of

The double role of ICT

Smart FactoriesObj. 7.1

Virtual FactoriesObj. 7.3

Towards Future ICT Factories …

Digital FactoriesObj. 7.4

“ManufacturingSolutions fornew ICT“

Obj. 7.2

Factories of theFuture


objective 7 1 smart factories energy aware agile manufacturing customisation
Objective 7.1: Smart FactoriesEnergy-aware, agile manufacturing & customisation

EU:Global leader in automation, industrial robotics & laser systems

Key industry players:ABB, Siemens, Festo, Schneider Electric, Acciona, Bosch, KUKA, COMAU, Trumpf, …

EU position:Increasingly threatened by Japan, USA, Korea, China

Lack of standardisation

Maintain & extend Europe’s 30% market share: «Factories» as products

Strong, export-oriented sector needs to maintain competitiveness

Tackle resource use efficiency of manufacturing (especially reduce 25% share of energy consumption)

Open new markets for innovative ICT devices & automation systems

Where do we stand?

What do we want to achieve & why?


objective 7 1 smart factories energy aware agile manufacturing customisation1
Objective 7.1: Smart FactoriesEnergy-aware, agile manufacturing & customisation

Target outcomes

  • Demonstration, benchmarking of process automation & control
    • For discrete, continuous or batch industries
    • Key features: flexibility, autonomy, robustness, energy transparency
    • Demonstration in real industrial environments
  • Large-scale validation of advanced industrial robotics systems
    • User-friendly interaction with & tasking of intelligent cooperative robotic systems
    • Large-scale applicability to flexible, small batch & craft manufacturing
  • Applications based on factory-wide networks of intelligent sensors, new metrology tools & methods
    • Real-time management of manufacturing information (incl. planning, scheduling, dispatching)
  • Lasers & laser systems for manufacturing & materials processing
    • High-brilliance diode lasers/laser arrays
    • New wavelengths & online adaptation of beam properties

Call FoF/2011 40 M€ IPs/STREPs


objective 7 2 manufacturing solutions for new ict products
Primarily roll-to roll wet deposition, but also other processes, e.g.

Evaporation, hot-embossing, laser processing,other low-temperature processes

Tackle main roadblocks, e.g.

Patterning processes, resolution, registration accuracy, process stability, multilayer lamination, encapsulation, automation, in-line quality control, architectures to cut production costs

Standardisation issues as appropriate

Industry-driven, strong quality control, testing &validation elements

Objective 7.2Manufacturing solutions for new ICT products

Target outcomes


Call FoF/2011 20 M€ IPs


thank you
Thank you

Thank you

FoF on the web:


PPP Information Event in Brussels, 9 July 2010

FoF Contacts:


Operations Management

For Competitive Advantage

Chapter 4

Process Analysis

ninth edition

chapter 4 process analysis
Chapter 4Process Analysis
  • Process Analysis
  • Process Flowcharting
  • Types of Processes
  • Process Performance Metrics
process analysis terms
Process Analysis Terms
  • Process: Is any part of an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs.
  • Cycle Time: Is the average successive time between completions of successive units.
  • Utilization: Is the ratio of the time that a resource is actually activated relative to the time that it is available for use.
process flowcharting defined
Process FlowchartingDefined
  • Process flowchartingis the use of a diagram to present the major elements of a process. The basic elements can include tasks or operations, flows of materials or customers, decision points, and storage areas or queues.
  • It is an ideal methodology by which to begin analyzing a process.
flowchart symbols
Flowchart Symbols

Tasks or operations

Examples: Giving an admission ticket to a customer, installing a engine in a car, etc.

Examples: How much change should be given to a customer, which wrench should be used, etc.

Decision Points

flowchart symbols continued
Flowchart Symbols (Continued)

Storage areas or queues

Examples: Sheds, lines of people waiting for a service, etc.

Examples: Customers moving to the a seat, mechanic getting a tool, etc.

Flows of materials or customers

example flowchart of student going to school
Example: Flowchart of Student Going to School


Go to school today?

Drive to school

Walk to class


Goof off

multistage process
Multistage Process

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

multistage process with buffer
Multistage Process with Buffer


Stage 1

Stage 2

other types of processes
Other Types of Processes
  • Make-to-order
    • Only activated in response to an actual order.
    • Both work-in-process and finished goods inventory kept to a minimum.
  • Make-to-stock
    • Process activated to meet expected or forecast demand.
    • Customer orders are served from target stocking level.
process performance metrics
Process Performance Metrics
  • Operation time = Setup time

Run time

  • Throughput time = Average time for a unit to move through the system
  • Velocity = Throughput time

Value-added time

process performance metrics continued
Process Performance Metrics (Continued)
  • Cycle time = Average time between completion of units
  • Throughput rate = 1 .

Cycle time

  • Efficiency = Actual output

Standard Output

process performance metrics continued1
Process Performance Metrics (Continued)
  • Productivity = Output


  • Utilization = Time Activated

Time Available

cycle time example
Cycle Time Example
  • Suppose you had to produce 600 units in 80 hours to meet the demand requirements of a product. What is the cycle time to meet this demand requirement?
  • Answer: There are 4,800 minutes (60 minutes/hour x 80 hours) in 80 hours. So the average time between completions would have to be: Cycle time = 4,800/600 units = 8 minutes.
process throughput time reduction
Process Throughput Time Reduction
  • Perform activities in parallel.
  • Change the sequence of activities.
  • Reduce interruptions.
properties of materials
Properties of Materials

Mechanical Properties: strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, elasticity, fatigue, creep.

Behavior Under Loading: tension, compression, bending, torsion, shear.

Physical Properties: density, specific heat, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, melting point, electrical and magnetic properties.

Chemical Properties: oxidation, corrosion, degradation, toxicity, flammability.

types of materials
Types of Materials

Ferrous Metals: iron and steel.

Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, titanium, superalloys, beryllium, zirconium, low-melting alloys, precious metals.

Plastics: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers.

Ceramics: glass, graphite, diamond.

Composite materials: reinforced plastics, metal-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites, honeycomb structures.

ferrous metals applications
Ferrous Metals: Applications
  • Structural: building structures, concrete reinforcement
  • Automotive: chassis, engine parts, drive train, body parts
  • Marine: ship hulls, structure, engines
  • Defense: tanks, weapons
  • Consumer Products: appliances, recreational vehicles, toys, utensils and tools
nonferrous metals applications
Nonferrous Metals: Applications
  • Architectural: aluminum windows and doors
  • Automotive: aluminum engine blocks, copper wiring, mag wheels
  • Marine: brass/bronze fittings, bearings, propellers
  • Defense: brass shell casings
  • Consumer Products: electrical wiring, utensils, jewelry, electronics
plastics polymers
Plastics (Polymers)
  • Compared to metals, plastics have lower density, strength, elastic modulus, and thermal and electrical conductivity, and a higher coefficient of thermal expansion
  • The design of plastic parts should include considerations of their low strength and stiffness, and high thermal expansion and low resistance to temperature.
plastics applications
Plastics: Applications
  • Architectural: electrical and thermal insulation, weather seals, carpets, wall coverings, paint
  • Aerospace: electrical and thermal insulation, instrument panels,upholstery, seals
  • Automotive: body panels, instrument panels, upholstery, electrical and thermal insulation, seals, hoses, tires
  • Consumer Products: toys, sporting goods, appliances, tools, utensils, clothing, shoes, packaging


“The Process of Converting Raw Materials Into Products”

manufacturing a product general considerations
Manufacturing a Product: General Considerations
  • Material Selection
  • Processing Methods
  • Final Shape and Appearance
  • Dimensional and Surface Finish
  • Economics of Tooling
  • Design Requirements
  • Safety and Environmental Concerns
choosing methods of production
Choosing Methods of Production

Use a Selection Chart

manufacturing processes for metals
Manufacturing Processes for Metals
  • Casting: expendable mold and permanent mold.
  • Forming and Shaping: rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing, sheet forming, powder metallurgy, molding
  • Machining: turning, boring, drilling, milling, planing, shaping, broaching, grinding, ultrasonic machining, chemical machining, electrical discharge machining (EDM), electrochemical machining, high-energy beam machining
  • Joining: welding, brazing, soldering, diffusion bonding, adhesive bonding, mechanical joining
  • Finishing: honing, lapping, polishing, burnishing, deburring, surface treating, coating, plating
casting processes
Casting Processes

Introduction of molten metal into a mold cavity; upon solidification, metal conforms to the shape of the cavity.

Die Casting

Sand Casting

forming and shaping processes
Forming and Shaping Processes

Bulk deformation processes that induce shape changes by plastic deformation under forces applied by tools and dies.



machining processes
Machining Processes

Material removal from a work piece: cutting, grinding, nontraditional machining processes.


Lathe Machine

manufacturing processes for plastics
Manufacturing Processesfor Plastics
  • Plastics are shipped to manufacturing plants as pellets or powders and are melted just before the shaping process. Polymers melt at relatively low temperatures and are easy to handle.
  • Plastics can be molded and formed, as well as machined and joined, into many shapes with relative ease.
Selective Laser Sintering System

Courtesy of the University of Texas

chapter 7

Chapter 7

Process Management

wisdom from texas instruments
Wisdom from Texas Instruments

“Unless you change the process, why would you expect the results to change”

scope of process management
Scope of Process Management
  • Process Management: planning and administering the activities – design, control, and improvement – necessary to achieve a high level of performance
  • Four types of key processes
    • Design processes
    • Production/delivery processes
    • Support processes
    • Supplier processes
AT&T Process

Management Principles

  • Focus on end-to-end process
  • Mindset of prevention and continuous improvement
  • Everyone manages a process at some level and is a customer and a supplier
  • Customer needs drive the process
  • Corrective action focuses on root cause
  • Process simplification reduces errors
control vs improvement




New zone

of control


Control vs. Improvement
leading practices 1 of 2
Leading Practices (1 of 2)
  • Translate customer requirements and internal capabilities into product and service design requirements early in the process
  • Ensure that quality is built into products and services and use appropriate tools during development
  • Manage product development process to enhance communication, reduce time, and ensure quality
  • Define, document, and manage important production/delivery and support processes
leading practices 2 of 2
Leading Practices (2 of 2)
  • Define performance requirements for suppliers and ensure that they are met
  • Control the quality and operational performance of key processes and use systematic methods to identify variations, determine root causes, and make corrections
  • Continuously improve processes to achieve better quality, cycle time, and overall operational performance
  • Innovate to achieve breakthrough performance using benchmarking and reengineering
product development paradigms
Traditional Approach

Design the product

Make the product

Sell the product

Deming’s Approach

Design the product

Make it with appropriate tests

Put it on the market

Conduct consumer research

Redesign with improvements

Product Development Paradigms
product development process
Product Development Process





Product &

process design







quality engineering
Quality Engineering
  • System Design
    • Functional performance
  • Parameter Design
    • Nominal dimensions
  • Tolerance Design
    • Tolerances
loss functions

no loss






Loss Functions





Taguchi Loss Function Calculations

L(x) = k(x - T)2

Example: Specification = .500  .020

Failure outside of the tolerance range costs $50

to repair. Thus, 50 = k(.020)2. Solving for k

yields k = 125,000. The loss function is:

L(x) = 125,000(x - .500)2

Expected loss = k(2 + D2) where D is the deviation

from the target.

design objectives
Design Objectives
  • Cost, Manufacturability, Quality, Public Concerns
  • Tools and Approaches
    • Design for Manufacturability
    • Design for Environment
streamlining product development
Streamlining Product Development
  • Competitive need for rapid product development
  • Concurrent engineering - a process in which all major functions involved with bringing a product to market are continuously involved with the product development from conception through sales
  • Design reviews
house of quality




Technical requirements

Voice of





Technical requirement




House of Quality
quality function deployment






quality plan

Quality Function Deployment
motorola s approach to process design
Motorola’s Approach to Process Design
  • Identify the product or service
  • Identify the customer
  • Identify the supplier
  • Identify the process
  • Mistake-proof the process
  • Develop measurements and control, and improvement goals.
evaluating a process
Evaluating a Process
  • Are steps arranged in logical sequence?
  • Do all steps add value? Can some be eliminated or added? Can some be combined? Should some be reordered?
  • Are capacities in balance?
  • What skills, equipment, and tools are required at each step?
  • At which points might errors occur and how can they be corrected?
  • At which points should quality be measured?
  • What procedures should employees follow where customer interaction occurs?
  • Project initiation – direction, priorities, limitations, and constraints
  • Project plan – blueprint and resources needed
  • Execution – produce deliverables
  • Close out – evaluate customer satisfaction and provide learning for future projects
basic components of services
Basic Components of Services
  • Physical facilities, processes, and procedures
  • Employee behavior
  • Employee professional


  • The continuing process of evaluating process performance and taking corrective action when necessary
  • Components of control systems
    • Standard or goal
    • Means of measuring accomplishment
    • Comparison of results with the standard as a basis for corrective action

A well-controlled system is predictable

after action review
After Action Review
  • What was supposed to happen?
  • What actually happened?
  • Why was there a difference?
  • What can we learn?
supplier and partnering processes
Supplier and Partnering Processes
  • Recognize the strategic importance of suppliers
  • Develop win-win relationships through partnerships
  • Establish trust through openness and honesty
supplier certification systems
Supplier Certification Systems
  • “Certified supplier” – one that, after extensive investigation, is found to supply material of such quality that routine testing on each lot received is unnecessary
benefits of effective supplier process management
Benefits of Effective Supplier Process Management
  • Reduced costs
  • Faster time to market
  • Increased access to technology
  • Reduced supplier risk
  • Improved quality
process improvement
Process Improvement

Traditional Industrial Engineering

  • Productivity improvement
  • Work simplification
  • Planned methods change
  • Kaizen
  • Stretch goals
  • Benchmarking
  • Reengineering

New approaches from the total quality movement

  • Gradual and orderly continuous improvement
  • Minimal financial investment
  • Involvement of all employees
  • Exploit the knowledge and experience of workers
  • Flexibility – the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to changing requirements
  • Cycle time – the time it takes to accomplish one cycle of a process
  • Benefits
    • Improve customer response
    • Force process streamlining and simplification
breakthrough improvement
Breakthrough Improvement
  • Discontinuous change resulting from innovative and creative thinking
  • Benchmarking – the search of industry best practices that lead to superior performance
    • Competitive benchmarking
    • Process benchmarking
    • Strategic benchmarking
  • Reengineering – radical redesign of processes
process management in the baldrige award criteria
Process Management in the Baldrige Award Criteria

The Process ManagementCategory examines the key aspects of an organization’s process management, including customer-focused design, product and service delivery, key business, and support processes. This Category encompasses all key processes and all work units.

6.1 Product and Service Processes

a. Design Processes

b. Production/Delivery Processes

6.2 Business Processes

6.3 Support Processes