Validity = accuracy of study Reliability = consistency of results - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Validity = accuracy of study Reliability = consistency of results PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Validity = accuracy of study Reliability = consistency of results

play fullscreen
1 / 42
Validity = accuracy of study Reliability = consistency of results
120 Views
Download Presentation
yeva
Download Presentation

Validity = accuracy of study Reliability = consistency of results

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Validity = accuracy of study Reliability = consistency of results

  2. VALIDITY- Does your study reveal accurate and representative results?

  3. Reliability • Is the measure able to give consistent measures over time?

  4. Reliability checks? • Test-retest • Split-half • Inter-observer • Convergence…replications

  5. VALIDITY- Does your study reveal accurate and representative results? • Internal Validity and External Validity • External Validity- generalizability • Issues • Sampling • Return rates • …..

  6. …External Validity • Generalizeability • Across population • Across environments • Across time

  7. Internal Validity

  8. Convergent validity • Different manipulations • Different measuring devices • Different populations…etc • Replication

  9. COMMON THREATS TO VALIDITY • Selection bias • random selection and assignment • Pretesting and matching • Recruitment technique

  10. History and Maturation Effects • Changes in the DV over time • Between pretest and post-test • Or between test sessions • constancy

  11. Mortality • Subject loss Over time • May reflect unintended effect of IV or DV • Subject loss may result in selection bias

  12. STOP FOR FUN! • ESP in PSYCHOLOGY?? • Somewhat critical • Lacking empirical validation • Should we remain open-minded? • Let’s give it a shot

  13. One of these symbols on each trial

  14. STOP until test complete

  15. What is Chance Performance? -1 out of 4 for each trial… -20 trials Chance performance = 5

  16. Just for fun let’s try again..this time seriously!

  17. answers

  18. Statistical Regression • Regression to the mean with repeated testing • Watch out for extreme scores..they may be due to chance

  19. Instrumentation • Changes in DV due to changes in measurement, not due to IV

  20. Sequence Effects-repeated testing effects • Practice effects • Test sensitization • Boredom/fatigue • Carry-over • Randomization and counterbalancing

  21. Subject Bias • Subjects can have attitude! RESPONSE SETS that produce inaccurate results • Soc desireability • Cooperitivity • Negativity • Volunteerism • -blindin-recruitment -deception or disguise lie detectors

  22. Experimentor Bias • Experimentors like to be correct! CONFIRMATIONAL BIAS • Demand characteristics • constancy • Automation • Double blinding

  23. How would you use blinding in a MJ drug study?

  24. PLACEBO EFFECTS ARE REAL • Expectation • What might someone expect MJ to do? • Beliefs/expectations can lead to real results….that are not related to the real effects of the IV.

  25. DOUBLE-BLIND PLACEBO CONTROL DESIGNS • Fake MJ?/ Ciggarette/ Pill other • Constancy • Can tease apart placebo effects from real drug effects.

  26. RANGE EFFECTS • Don’t forget the inability to see an affect of an IV on a DV does not necessarily mean there isn’t one. • Ceiling effects • Basement effects

  27. ULTIMATE CONTROL • Control procedures may be taylored for unique experiments • Ultimate control may never be completely achieved

  28. BEING A REAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENTIST?? • The crux- identification of potential confounds • AND • RIVAL HYPOTHESIS

  29. RIVAL HYPOTHESIS • Alternative explanations for experimental results • Alternative to the research hypothesis

  30. Consider the following Hampton Court Maze

  31. The radial arm maze for rats

  32. Training of rats on the RAM • Initial freezing • Adaptation and exploration • Neophobia to food pellet • Adaptation to food • Rapid acquisition of task

  33. RAM memory errors? • Entrance into previously entered arm • One foot? Two? Half-way? All the way?

  34. Rats become quite good • Rarely make a memory error • Win-shift strategy

  35. Maybe they take an algorhythmic strategy • Right-right-right etc

  36. To control for strategies..forced choice procedures

  37. Using forced-choice procedures • No indication of algorhythm • Performance still very good

  38. SO… • What does rat performance in RAM show us?

  39. Rival Hypothesis? • Memory or sensory guidance? • Intra-maze or extramaze guidance? • Spatial memory or…..?

  40. Motivation-deficitsSensory-deficitsAttention-deficits