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Cognitive Psychology, 2 nd Ed. Chapter 13 Problem Solving. Types of Thinking. Directed vs. undirected thinking Reproductive vs. productive thinking Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems -initial state, subgoals, and goal -operators & problem space. General Problem Solver .

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cognitive psychology 2 nd ed

Cognitive Psychology, 2nd Ed.

Chapter 13

Problem Solving

types of thinking
Types of Thinking
  • Directed vs. undirected thinking
  • Reproductive vs. productive thinking
  • Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems

-initial state, subgoals, and goal

-operators & problem space

general problem solver
General Problem Solver
  • Representing the problem properly is critical.

-MC problem

-monk problem

  • Isomorphic problems

-monster problem

problem space search
Problem Space Search
  • Algorithm

-trial and error

-systematic search

  • Heuristics

-working backwards

-analogies

-means end analysis

domain specific knowledge
Domain-Specific Knowledge
  • Knowledge is power

-finding good representations

-learning effective search

-metacognitive monitoring

creativity
Creativity
  • Historical vs. process creativity

-novel product

-useful product

-special talent

  • Stages of creative process

-preparation

-incubation

-illumination

-verification

creative blocks
Creative Blocks
  • Poor representation with unnecessary constraints
  • Fixation
  • Functional fixedness
historically creative people
Historically Creative People
  • Muse or good thinking?
  • Simonton’s Darwinian Model

-large number of varied ideas

-random selection of variations

-individual and societal selection