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Cross-cultural Communication and Negotiation. Chapter 7. Sender meaning. Encoding. Medium. Decoding. Receiver interpretation. Feedback. The Communication Process. Communication is the process of transferring meaning from sender to receiver. The Communication Model.

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the communication process









The Communication Process
  • Communication is the process of transferring meaning from sender to receiver.

The Communication Model

the communication model
The Communication Model
  • Encoding: The sender expresses a meaning in a message
  • Medium: the means that a sender uses to transmit the message
  • Decoding: the receiver gets the message
  • Interpretation: the receiver tries to understand the meaning of the message
  • Feedback: The receiver responds to the message
terms in communication
Terms in Communication
  • Intercultural communication: a member of one culture sends a message to a member of another culture.
  • Attribution: the process in which people look for the explanation of another person’s behavior.
  • Noise: a factor that causes the receiver to misunderstand the sender's message
context of communication 1
Context of Communication (1)
  • Context is the information that surrounds a communication and helps to convey the message
  • Low-context societies
    • Message is explicit and the speaker tries to say precisely what is meant
    • Direct style: focus on speaker's statements
    • Silence may make people uncomfortable
    • Facial expressions and body language may be easy to interpret
    • Business meetings are often focused on objectives.
context of communication 2
Context of Communication (2)
  • High-context societies
    • Business meetings with new contacts focus on relationships first. Business comes later.
    • Indirect style: speaker does not spell out his message
      • Avoid saying "no"
      • Avoid embarrassing people
      • Control facial expressions and body language
context of communication 3
Context of Communication (3)
  • Indirect style (2)
    • Messages often are implicit: Listener is expected to de-code verbal and non-verbal cues, such as voice, intonation, timing, body language
    • Silence is used to understand received messages and decide how to reply
explicit and implicit communication

High-context/implicit communication cultures

Low-context/explicit communication cultures

Explicit and Implicit Communication



Latin Americans




North Americans



Swiss Germans

how people use physical space to communicate
How People Use Physical Spaceto Communicate
  • Intimate distance is used for very confidential communications
  • Personal distance is used for talking with family and close friends
  • Social distance is used to handle most business transactions in the U. S.
  • Public distance is used when calling across the room or giving a talk to a group
personal space in the u s

Intimate distance


Personal distance

18” to 4’

Social distance

4’ to 8’

Public distance

8’ to 10’

Personal Space in the U.S.
the use of time
The Use of Time
  • Monochronic (sequential) time schedule
    • Things are done in a linear fashion.
    • Manager addresses Issue A first and then moves on to Issue B
    • Time schedules are very important. Time is viewed as something that can be controlled and should be used wisely
  • Polychronic time schedules
    • People tend to do several things at the same time
    • People place higher value on personal involvement than on getting things done on time
    • Schedules are less important than personal relationships
managing cross cultural negotiations
Managing Cross-Cultural Negotiations
  • Negotiation:The process of bargaining with one or more parties to arrive at a solution that is acceptable to all
  • Steps in international business negotiations
    • Planning – each company does separately
    • Interpersonal relationship building
    • Exchanging task-related information
    • Persuasion and bargaining
    • Agreement
step 1 planning
Step 1: Planning
  • Learn about the other company that will be involved in the negotiations.
  • Learn about the culture, negotiating behaviors, and business practices of the country in which the other company is located.
  • Determine what your objectives are.
    • Identify possible options for reaching each objective.
step 1 planning 2
Step 1: Planning (2)
  • Set negotiating targets or limits.
    • Know what you would like to get and what you must get in order to meet your company’s objectives
    • Set limits for single-point objectives
  • Divide issues into short- and long-term considerations and decide how to handle each.
  • Determine the sequence in which to discuss the issues.
step 2 interpersonal relationship building
Step 2:Interpersonal Relationship Building
  • In a high-context culture, relationship building will be a long, important process and will precede discussions of business.
    • Get to know the people on the other side
    • Identify those who are reasonable and those who are not.
  • In a low-context culture, get down to business.
step 3 exchange task related information
Step 3:Exchange Task-related Information
  • Each group sets forth its position on the critical issues
  • These positions often change later in the negotiations
  • Participants try to find out what the other party wants to attain and what it is willing to give up
step 4 persuasion
Step 4: Persuasion
  • Work toward a final agreement
  • Success depends on
    • How well the parties understand each other’s position
    • The ability of each to identify areas of similarity and differences
    • The ability to create new options
    • The willingness to work toward a mutually acceptable solution
step 5 agreement
Step 5: Agreement
  • Grant concessions and hammer out a final agreement
  • American negotiators usually bargain on one issue at a time.
  • Asian, Russian, and Arab negotiators usually want one big, final agreement and give few concessions until the end.
negotiating for mutual benefit getting to yes
Negotiating for Mutual Benefit“Getting to Yes”
  • Separate the people from the problem.
  • Focus on mutual interests.
  • Generate as many options as you can, but be sure that each option will be a good business deal for your company.
  • Use objective criteria.
  • Stand your ground. Neither side should accept a deal that is worse than its best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BANTA)
negotiation tactics
Negotiation Tactics
  • Location
  • Time limits
  • Buyer-seller relations
  • Bargaining behaviors
    • Use of extreme behaviors
    • Promises and threats
    • Nonverbal behaviors