Bellwork: • In your own words, define the word Holocaust. • Make a list of words, phrases, names, etc. associated with the Holocaust.
Holocaust • Name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II. • The extermination of over 6 million Jews. • More than 5 million others were victims of various methods of execution.
Causes for this Atrocity • European Anti-Semitism • Mein Kampf • Living Space • Blamed for loss in WWI
The Early Stages • Nuremburg Laws • Kristallnacht • Executions of European prisoners of war
The Nuremberg Laws • Enacted Sept. 1935 • Laws identifying Jews and restricting many of their basic rights. • Banned interracial marriages, holding public office, and voting • Labeling by yellow star or red J on passports • Several other conditions • More are added throughout the reign of Hitler
Kristallnacht • The Night of Broken Glass – Nov. 9, 1938 • A German Jewish refugee shot a German diplomat in Paris (Nov. 7, 1938) • Initiated by Joseph Goebbels for retaliation • The Gestapo (government’s secret police) arrested over 20,000 wealthy Jews
Kristallnacht • Jewish possessions were confiscated and over 7,500 businesses destroyed. • Over 90 Jews died and hundreds were injured.
Refugees Attempt to Flee • Over 350,000 German Jews escaped Germany • Many were denied entrance into new homes due to several factors. • US immigration policy allowed a limit of 150,000, but there were fixed quota from each country. • Many fake visas were sold. When Jews arrived in a new county, they were denied. SS St. Louis (1939) is a great example.
Notable People Associated with the Holocaust • Rudolf Hoss • Josef Mengele (Angel of Death) • Anne Frank • Ellie Wiesel • Heinrich Himmler • Albert Einstein
Holocaust Figures Descriptive Paragraphs Assignment • Choose 3 of the following notable Holocaust figures to research and write a descriptive paragraph. • Writing should consist of at least 4 solid sentences, explanation of who this person is, and why they are a significant figure concerning this horrific event. • Topics: Ellie Wiesel, Heinrich Himmler, Rudolf Hoss, Anne Frank, and Josef Mengele.
The Answer to the Problem • January 20, 1942 the Wannsee Conference was a meeting of Nazi leaders to solve the Jewish problem • 1st solution: send Jews and other undesirables to eastern Europe to build roads and who didn’t die due to the labor would be eliminated. • 2nd solution: Extermination camps – camps usually attached to concentration camps primarily for execution.
Concentration and Death Camps • Concentration camps: locations designed to retain groups of people for various reasons during the Holocaust. • 1st established in 1933 for political opponents • After Hitler began acquiring various lands such as Poland, concentration camps were built in many conquered areas. • Auschwitz was the most well known camps. It housed over 100,000 people in 300 barracks. An estimated 1.6 million people died there.
Characteristics of a Concentration Camp • Fences, guards, barracks, dead bodies, striped uniforms, etc.
Liberation • By late 1944, the Soviets and US/GB were collapsing on Germany. • In order to dispose of some evidence of their actions, many camps were mostly evacuated and prisoners were forced on death marches which killed a great number of people. • In early 1945, the Allies began liberating camps. • Many of the survivors were placed in displaced persons camps
Punishment and Assurance • War crimes and crimes of against humanity were tried in the Nuremburg Trials. • The International Criminal Court was not established until 2002 in response to the ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia.
Holocaust Wrap-Up Storyboard • Create a 6 panel storyboard concerning the Holocaust. • Each panel must consist of both Illustration and TEXT. • Storyboard must be colored and turned in on time.