by desiree altmann and michael kim n.
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By: Desiree Altmann and Michael Kim. Diction/Song/Spectacle. Diction. Fourth in importance Elaborates the action, the character and the theme but it does not contributes theme “the expression of the meaning in words” Proper: generally used by people Appropriate to plot

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  • Fourth in importance
  • Elaborates the action, the character and the theme but it does not contributes theme
    • “the expression of the meaning in words”
      • Proper: generally used by people
      • Appropriate to plot
      • Appropriate to characters
      • Appropriate to end of tragedy
  • Aristotle discusses the style of tragedy, favoring metaphors
  • Aristotle believed it was a mark of genius, if one could create a good metaphor
  • Essence both in verse and prose
  • To create a clean diction that is distant from common one can use:
    • Lengthening
    • Contraction
    • Altering words
  • Newly-coined words are words that have never been used in local areas, but used and adopted by the poet
  • Word is lengthened when its own vowel is exchanged for a longer one or when a syllable is inserted
  • Word is contracted when some part of it is removed
  • Altered word is a word in which part of it its left unchanged and the other part recast
  • Nouns can be masculine, feminine or neutral
  • A clear style is one that uses only current and proper words
    • Riddle: consists of metaphors
    • Jargon: consists of strange or rare words
  • The essence of riddle is to express true facts under impossible combinations
  • Critics hold poets to use the correct way of such thing
    • If not their poetry would sound grotesque and ludicrous
  • Poets need moderation in lengthening, contraction and altering words
  • Strange words, metaphors or even any similar mode of expression can replace a common, ordinary, proper term to make it more attractive
  • But if such are not used well they may lead to catastrophe
  • Metaphors are used in iambic
  • Strange or rare words are use in heroic poetry
example for diction
Example for diction
  • "nun de m'eonoligostekaioutidanoskaiaeikes, "Yet a small man, worthless and unseemly, "the difference will be felt if we substitute the common words, "nun de m'eonmikrostekaiasthenikoskaiaeides. "Yet a little fellow, weak and ugly. "
  • Fifth in importance
  • Musical element of the chorus
  • Aristotle thinks that the chorus should be fully integrated in the play; like an actor
    • Should contribute to the plot
  • Has diction and thought
  • Thought:
    • Includes every effect which has to be produced
      • Proof: excitation of the feelings
      • Refutation: suggestion of importance or its opposite
    • Must have same points of view as the dramatic speeches when it what’s to evoke feelings
    • Incidents should speak for themselves without verbal exposition
    • Effects should be produced be the speaker
  • Diction:
    • Can be a command
      • A prayer
      • A statement
      • A threat
      • A question
      • An answer, and so forth
      • Used to tell what to do or what not to do
example for song
Example for Song
  • Homer by Protagoras- “Sing, goddess, of the wrath,” he gives a command under the idea that he utters a prayer in the song.
  • Last of importance and least connected with literature
    • “the production of spectacular effects depends more on the art of the stage machinist than on that of the poet.”
    • own emotional attraction and least connected with the art of poetry.
  • Aristotle
    • says that superior poets rely more on the inner structure of the play than fear and pity
  • Tragedy
    • Apart from representation and actors
    • People who use spectacular means that includes monstrous are a purpose to Tragedy
  • Production of Spectacular Effects depends on more on the art of the stage than the poet.
  • Fear and Pity

1. Made by spectacular means

2. Makes a superior poet

3. incidents must happen between friends or enemies

  • Skillful handling
    • done with consciously and knowledge
  • Falling within the action
    • 1 case= to be about to act with knowledge of the persons and then not to act
    • 2 case= doing an irreparable deed by ignorance and discover before it’s done.
example for spectacle
Example for Spectacle
  • An unnecessary action done on stage.
  • Example:
    • Shakespeare thought that spectacle was needed to be more entertaining like the dramatic end in Romeo and Juliet