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Inclusion: Helping All Students Succeed “Children that learn together, learn to live together. Irene Elliott Director, Pupil Personnel Services Encinitas Union School District.

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inclusion helping all students succeed children that learn together learn to live together

Inclusion: Helping All Students Succeed“Children that learn together, learn to live together

Irene Elliott

Director, Pupil Personnel Services

Encinitas Union School District


All Children are General Education Students First"Inclusion involves all kinds of practices that are ultimately practices of good teaching. What good teachers do is to think thoughtfully about children and develop ways to reach all children. "Ultimately good teaching is a relationship between two people; teachers get good results because they enter into that relationship. Inclusion is providing more options for children as ways to learn. It’s structuring schools as community where all children can learn. But there’s no recipe for becoming an inclusive teacher or an inclusive school. It’s not a mechanized format." -- Dr. Chris Kliewer, Associate Professor of Special Education, University of Northern Iowa, (taught second grade in an inclusive school in Syracuse, NY, for four years).

historical perspective
Historical Perspective
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Civil Rights movement (1950’s/1960’s)
  • The Education for all Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1990)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
requirements in the law
Requirements in the Law
  • I.D.E.A. Reauthorization and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 require that individuals with disabilities are to receive a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) which must occur in the least restrictive environment (LRE), with supplementary aids and services, when necessary.
least restrictive environment
Least Restrictive Environment

To the maximum extent possible, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions and other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the general education environment occurs only when the nature of the severity of the disability of the child is such that education in the general class with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. Section 612 (a) (5) (A)

key concepts of lre
Key Concepts of LRE
  • Must be individually determined and based on a student’s individual needs
  • Applies to all children with disabilities
  • The general education class is always the first choice
  • Consideration and use of supplementary aids and services to make the general education class a first and viable option is required
supplementary aids and services
Supplementary Aids and Services

Aids, services, and other supports that are provided in general education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with non-disabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance

with 300.500-300.556.

full inclusion vs mainstreaming
Full Inclusion vs. Mainstreaming
  • Mainstreaming: Special Education class is primary placement; student is brought to the services
  • Full inclusion: General Education class is the primary placement; services are brought to the student
  • Decisions are based on the ability of the child to benefit from the placement
An inclusive classroom is a supportive, caring learning community in which every student feels accepted
"Inclusion works when teachers believe that all children can learn." dayle timmons
  • Inclusion is changing the rules of the game so that everyone can play and everyone can win.
full inclusion is
Full Inclusion is
  • Believing that all children can learn
  • Welcoming all children and their unique gifts
  • Addressing each child’s educational needs
  • Good for all children
  • A collaborative way to teach and learn
  • A right of all children regardless of their disability
Teachers have the opportunity for:
  • setting an example for nondiscrimination and acceptance of people’s differences
  • using creativity in their teaching
  • workings closely with parents to understand student strengths and needs
  • working with a wider circle of teachers and specialists
  • being a leader and role model for other educators
  • eliminating preconceived ideas about students with disabilities
  • making significant change in the life of a student with disabilities as well as others in the class
goals of inclusion
Better Instruction

More time on task

Fewer interruptions

Closer monitoring

Higher self-esteem

Sense of belonging

More risk taking

Fewer labels

Teacher teamwork

Ownership by all

Positive self-esteem comes from engaging in a challenging task and succeeding

Goals of Inclusion
benefits of inclusion
Benefits of Inclusion
  • Students with disabilities have the opportunity for:
    • experiencing full citizenship in school and

the community

    • forming a wide circle of friends
    • experiencing academic challenges
    • enjoying the satisfaction of achievements
    • learning to rely more on friends than teachers
    • taking new risks
    • finding they can master activities they may not have tried in special ed classes
Students without disabilities have the opportunity for:
  • realizing that each person has gifts, talents and challenges
  • learning to move beyond their stereotypes of people with disabilities
  • developing a better understanding of citizenship for all people
  • appreciating the similarities and differences among all people
  • working on the sense of their own shortcomings
  • increasing their level of comfort around all people
  • serving as role models
  • solving real life challenges by finding creative approaches to problems faced by students with disabilities
classroom expectations
Student response

Teaching style


Grading Textbooks


Written work

Identify what it takes for a student to succeed in your classroom

Classroom Expectations
"A bonus associated with learning to make modifications is that you can then use these to help all learners. Not only will this help you reinforce the idea that all people learn differently, but it will also help you teach that everyone needs e xtra help once in awhile." -- Golomb & Hammeken. (January/February 1996). Learning.
Curriculum Modification Planning
  • What is everyone else doing? ________________
  • Can ______participate just like everyone else?

If yes, go for it!

  • If no, what can we do to include _________?
  • Can we give _________some help from friends?

From who_________?

  • Can_______use different materials? What materials?__________How will they be used?_______
  • What else can ______do that is related to what the class is doing?___________________