“Circulation of Scientific Talent and Communication with Diasporas”EREF Istanbul Workshop on Knowledge Transfer for DevelopmentMay 12, 2010Istanbul, Turkey Prof Đuro KUTLAČA, PhD "Mihajlo Pupin" Institute Science and Technology Policy Research Centre 11000 Belgrade, Volgina 15, Serbia; firstname.lastname@example.org and Associated Professor Faculty of Information Technology Tadeuša Košćuška 63, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia Skype: djuro.kutlaca Research presented in this paper was supported by the EU-FP7 project: “WBC-INCO.NET – Western Balkan Countries International Cooperation Net” funded by the European Commission, FP7 Capacities Programme, January 2008-December 2010
“How to Gain from Brain-drain: Country's Experiences – Serbian Academicians in Diaspora”
Content: • Transition of S&T systems in CEE/SEE countries • S&T System in Serbia • Brain Drain • How to Gain from Brain Drain
1. Transition of S&T systems in CEE countries
“To date, restructuring in CEE countries has led to a more autonomous and competitive science base, but it has not yet produced a science system which is relevant to its changed economic and technological structure. Hence there remains a large gap between the region’s level of potential in labor skills and R&D, and the current low levels of growth and recovery” [Radosevic, Slavo, “Science, Technology and Growth: Issues for Central and Eastern Europe”, Summary of the project: “Restructuring and Reintegration of Science and Technology Systems in Economies in Transition”, funded by DGXII of the EC under TSER Programme, 1996-98, SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 1999].
Main changes in R&D systems in SEE countries during transition period is evaluated in literature as: • “… the Western Balkans, Romania and Bulgaria are characterized by national innovation systems: • that are undergoing radical institutional and structural changes, • a research and technology infrastructure that is largely obsolete, • a disproportionately large amount of basic research combined with poor financial remuneration, • a large deficit of industrial demand for applied research combined with very low business expenditure on R&D, • an often relatively aged human potential in R&D that is confronted with the negative effects of the internal and external brain drain, • and suboptimal integration into European research and technology projects" • [GFF, 2006, “Research and Development in South East Europe”, Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Forschung (ed), Neuer Wissenschaftlicher Verlag GmbH, ISBN 3-7083-0377-6, Wien – Graz 2006].
Table: Researchers in selected CEE countries in 1990 and 2003 and 2007 [OECD-MSTI, Eurostat]
Table: Researchers industry in selected CEE countries in 1999 and 2003 and 2007 [OECD-MSTI, Eurostat]
National System of Innovation Concept of Technopolis 2000 modified and extended by S.Kuhlmann [EC,2003a]
2. S&T System in Serbia
S&T&I SYSTEM IN SERBIA Figure: Structure of Science, Technology and Innovation system in Serbia Source: Based on ENIP-PRIME NETWORK model of STI system [Kuhlman, 2003; PRIME, 2003]
3. Brain Drain
S&T&I SYSTEM IN SERBIA BRAIN-DRAIN from SERBIA – MSTD data-est.: • 1991 – 2000: 30.000 graduated left country; • 2000 – 2010: 2.000 graduated left country. Most of them are professionals from ICT and natural sciences. [300.000 USD – cost for education of university degree professional * 30.000 = 9 billion USD – loss caused by Brain-Drain]
S&T&I SYSTEM IN SERBIA BRAIN-DRAIN from SERBIA – MSTD data-est.: Canada - 18.51% USA - 10.72% Australia - 4.5% New Zealand - 7.4%. Push factors for BD – scientists: low standard of living (24.8%) the uncertainty for the future (18.7%) as well as the housing problem. Push factors for BD – students: the low living standards (29.9%), the uncertainty for the future (19.4%), and the impossibility to fulfill one’s own conceptions (10%), economic instability (5.8%)
S&T&I SYSTEM IN SERBIA Factors causing BD – scientists: high earnings (21.24%) and much better material and technical conditions for scientific work. Push factors for BD – students: high earnings (21.24%) and much better material and technical conditions for scientific work high level of scientific research (14.1%), which cannot be achieved in Serbia under existing conditions The strongest reasons keeping scientists and students in Serbia is their preference to work in their own country, expectations that the situation will improve, fear of the uncertainty awaiting them in other countries, etc.
3. How to Gain from Brain Drain
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? Hard policies: • bigger salaries than in country of emigration (China) (+) • special kind of taxations or national service or repayment of scholarships in order to get approval for emigration (-).
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? Soft policies: - use of “positive” aspects of BD (Taiwan, South Korea, Ireland) – cooperation with academic Diaspora - soft networking with expatriated experts: creation of “Knowledge Networks” – networks of expatriated experts in some fields of Science and Technology. Networks could be created spontaneously, ex-patriots could be self-organizing or grouped on initiative from home country, usually members could be emigrants from other countries; - Example: “Caldas network” gathered almost 10% of emigrants who are not from Columbia - First contacts as well as most of engagements in home country resulted from personal relationships and friendship, rather than from official government effort; - Government could ask “Knowledge Networks” for expertise and benefit in economic, political etc. sense: exchange of information, knowledge, and working jointly in specific projects.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? Soft policies: WUS Austria – International support for cooperation with expatriated experts – example: http://www.braingainprogram.org/ Within the Brain Gain Program plus (BGP+) faculties/universities from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosova/o, Montenegro and Serbia can invite professors, assistants or experts in relevant fields originating from former Yugoslavia to teach as guest lecturers, participate in research and development, and mentor student theses.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? Soft policies: WUS Austria – International support for cooperation with expatriated experts – example: http://www.braingainprogram.org/: o BGP+ Classic (the supported period of stay should be between 1 and 3 weeks with at least 15 teaching hours per week), and o BGP+ with extended period of stay (the supported period of stay is the whole semester, and the lecturer is obliged to take over theses mentoring. A guest lecturer can: a. take over the full teaching workload – at least 10 teaching hours per week - and mentoring, or b. half teaching workload – at least 5 teaching hours per week – and research and mentoring.).
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? How to convert “brain drain” into “brain gain”!? o Make a strategy: Short-Mid and Long term; o Invest time, people and money in realization of such strategies.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? Soft policies: - MID TERM national strategy could be: o Creation of Data bases of expatriated experts – profiles by fields of S&T and countries; o Government initiative for establishment of “Knowledge Networks”: Initiative should create motivation expatriated experts to join “Knowledge Network”. Approach to experts must be individual, avoid “no name” invitation, strictly without political, national, religious or other particular implications which could provoke resistance and broke network; o “Knowledge Networks” must be Internet based sort of communication, such as network of experts emigrants from Switzerland: www.swiss-list.com.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? Soft policies: - LONG TERM national strategy: o Market economy rules are in force when expert engagement is in case. Therefore, offer should be attractive enough for experts to work for home country! Make them as “ambassadors” of domestic S&T abroad! This will be entrance ticket to the top S&T projects and achievements!!! o Expatriate experts could make more possibilities to domestic scientists, particularly young researchers for PhD studies, post-docs, study visits etc; o Expatriate experts could be members of domestic S&T councils, economic and social high level advisory boards etc; o Expatriate experts could established first contacts between domestic and foreign companies – “economic networks should be preferred and carefully developed, even as a role of economic attaché in diplomatic area.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? S&T development strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2009 to 2014: Focus and Partner: PREVENTING BRAIN-DRAIN: Identification and development of talent in schools and other educational institutions: Science competitions (international Olympiads) Petnica Science Center, finishing infrastructure project and stable financing Mathematical High School, new campus in Belgrade and capacity increase Support: Scholarships Noncommercial housing, 1000 more flats for researchers Legal changes to stabilize employment status Doctoral studies: solving the problem of social and health insurance, more financial support.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? S&T development strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2009 to 2014: Focus and Partner: PREVENTING BRAIN-DRAIN: HIGHER EDUCATION AND SCIENCE WILL CLEARLY AND QUANTITATIVELY DETERMINE BY SCHOOL YEAR 2010-2011 A MID TERM PLAN FOR ENROLLMENT: It is critical to increase the number of students studying natural sciences and engineering A 5 year exact plan for funding will be agreed upon The number of PhD students will be matched with priorities.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? S&T development strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2009 to 2014: Focus and Partner: PREVENTING BRAIN-DRAIN: PROJECT EVALUATION AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT WILL MATCH NATIONAL PRIORITIES: The evaluation of scientists will continue to focus on the quality of publications but will be complemented with more qualitative measures Specific evaluation for technological innovations and social sciences and humanities Evaluation will encourage and reward collaboration between labs and institutions Extra rewards will be attached to publications in top international journals and international editorial positions Specific situations will be recognized: young researchers, those coming back from abroad, researchers returning from administrative positions.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? S&T development strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2009 to 2014: Focus and Partner: PARTNERSHIP WITH THE SCIENTIFIC DIASPORA THROUGH JOINT PROJECTS: Finalization of data base of Serbian researchers living and working abroad An international refereeing system will be established using the capacity of our research Diaspora Possibilities will be opened up for researchers living abroad to be part of national projects A human resources program for the return of Serbian scientists living abroad will be conducted.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? MSTD – HUMAN RESOURCES PROGRAM Bringing Serbian scientists working abroad back to Serbia: Motivating Serbian Diaspora for Scientific Research: Such financial package may include relocation expenses, cost of specific lab equipment, if any, studentships /fellowships for the accompanying scholars, and appropriate award money. The scientific institutions within Serbia will host the potential recipients of the awards and extend necessary infrastructural facilities in areas that are of high priority for economic development of Serbia. The award recipients may be given temporary pointments and an opportunity to develop an institute in the area of their excellence, Setting up of a Network of Serbian Scientific Diaspora
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? MSTD – HUMAN RESOURCES PROGRAM Bringing Serbian scientists working abroad back to Serbia: Short- term Visits of Eminent Serbian scientists from Diaspora to Serbia (including trainings, lectures. etc., in Serbian research institutions) Attracting scientists from Diaspora to launch start-up companies. Return of these scientists to set up start up units can be encouraged by offering a set o f special incentives, which could include tax breaks, reduction o f levies and duties on their products, availability of space at concessional rates, etc. Other related initiatives that contribute in line with cooperation and creativity.
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? MSTD – HUMAN RESOURCES PROGRAM Project Budget Motivating Serbian Diaspora for Scientific Research: Relocation expenses (bringing around 200 Serbian scientists) – 5 MEUR Fellowships – 1.5 MEUR Specific lab equipment – 2 MEUR Setting up of a Network of Serbian Scientic Diaspora – 1.5 MEUR Short- term Visits of Eminent Serbian scientists from Diaspora to Serbia (Including trainings, lectures. etc., in Serbian research institutions) – 2 MEUR Attracting scientists from Diaspora to launch start-up companies – 3 MEUR The total budget of the Project is 15 MEUR !
How to Gain from Brain Drain ? S&T development strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2009 to 2014: Focus and Partner: TARGET: 400 scientists will be back within next 5 years!
“How to Gain from Brain-drain:Country's Experiences – Serbian Academicians in Diaspora”“Circulation of Scientific Talent and Communication with Diasporas”EREF Istanbul Workshop on Knowledge Transfer for DevelopmentMay 12, 2010, Istanbul, Turkey Thank you for your attention! Q & A