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Nationalism in Europe. Wichtige Frage. How does nationalism shape Europe in the 19 th century? In what way(s) was the Congress of Vienna successful (or not) with regard to their efforts to squash nationalism?

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Wichtige frage
Wichtige Frage

  • How does nationalism shape Europe in the 19th century?

  • In what way(s) was the Congress of Vienna successful (or not) with regard to their efforts to squash nationalism?

  • How does the creation of a new, united Germany change the balance of power in Europe?


  • The belief that each nation or group of people should have their own country, with clearly defined borders, and their own government

  • It is also the idea that people should be loyal to their country rather than to their leader

  • Finally, it is having pride in one’s country and being patriotic.

What makes a group a nation
What makes a group a nation?

  • Nationality (common ethnicity)

  • Language (a language that all in the nation will speak)

  • Culture (a shared way of life)

  • History (common experiences)

  • Religion (a religion for most or all people)

  • Territory (the land for the nation)

Italian unification
Italian Unification

  • Napoleon controlled until 1815

    • brought unity for short time

  • Congress of Vienna redraws Europe & hurts Italian unity

    • Northern Italy given to Austrians at Vienna

  • Italy made up of independent governments

    • Papal States, Piedmont Sardinia, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Tuscany, Parma & Lombardy

Moving toward unification
Moving Toward Unification

Groups within Italian states begin to push for unification of Italy

Most wanted Austrians out of Northern Italy (WHY?!)

Literature starts to call for unification

Different groups emerge: The Carbonari

Giuseppe mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini

  • 1805-1872

  • “poor man's lawyer”

  • “Tin Man” (The Heart)

  • Founder of Young Italy movement

  • 1830 member of Carbonari

  • Arrested in October 1830

  • Hope for unity and autonomy only to be found in nation-states

Mazzini s young italy
Mazzini’s Young Italy

  • basic principle : the union of the several states and kingdoms into a single republic

  • "One, Independent, Free Republic“

  • Failed uprisings in 1833 & 1848

    • Sent into exile after 1848 uprising failed

  • Remember Copernicus?

Camillo di cavour
Camillo di Cavour

  • 1810-1861

  • Founder of Italian Liberal Party

  • Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia

  • The “Scarecrow” (The Brains)


  • United Italy unintentionally; true intent was to strengthen Piedmont-Sardinia

  • Attempted, through war with France and Austria, to gain the northern Italian states in 1859

    • France backed out with only half of the territory gained

    • Parma, Tuscany & Modena, which had not been gained by the war rebelled against Austrians & joined Sardinia


  • Prime Minister of Piedmont 1861 Victor Emanuell II made him Prime Minister of Italy

  • Strain too much on him he dies June 7,1861

  • His last words were reportedly “Italy is made. All is safe.”

Giuseppe garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • 1807-1882

  • "Hero of the Two Worlds"

  • Member of Young Italy and Carbonari

  • Exiled to the Americas

  • Founded the Red Shirts

  • The “Cowardly Lion” (The Strength)

  • Unified by the sword not the ballot box

Garibaldi s achievements
Garibaldi’s Achievements

  • Helped lead riots in various cities

  • Worked closely with Mazzini

  • Commanded Navy in the Uragauy Civil War

  • Returns to Italy to defend Rome during the First War of Italian Independence

  • Unified the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

    • Stopped short of uniting all of Italy by Cavour


  • Garibaldi steps aside to prevent civil war and allows Cavour to let king of Sardinia rule

Steps to finish the job
Steps to Finish the Job

  • Remove the Austrians from Venetia

  • May 1860 elections

    • Victor Emanuel II voted King of Italy by “the grace of God and the will of the nation”

  • Venetia reclaimed by Italy in 1866 as a result of the 7 weeks War

  • Franco-Prussian War of 1870 forces French to recall troops from Papal States

    • Italy is united

Problems remain
Problems Remain

  • Problems between North and South

    • Industrial North, agricultural South

    • Language (dialect) problems

    • Political problems between the two

    • Not going to be ready for the 20th century


  • Define nationalism

  • What are some of the characteristics that go into creating a nation?

  • Who united Italy first in the 19th century?

  • Who were the 3 men who unified Italy?


  • Why is Mazzini the Copernicus of the Italian unification movement?

  • What war brought Venetia back to Italy?

  • What war forced the French out of Italy and finished the unification of Italy?

Germany s makeup
Germany’s Makeup

  • Result of the Congress of Vienna was 39 separate German states

    • Prussia largest & most dominant

    • Homogeneous population made unification easier

      • Religious differences between Catholic south and Protestant north

Economic unification
Economic Unification

  • Creation of the Zollverein (customs union) by 1844

    • Reduced tariffs between German states

    • Created tariffs against foreign products

    • Adopted uniform set of weights, measures & currency

    • Paved way for later political union

Otto von bismarck
Otto von Bismarck

  • 1815-1898

  • Member of the Junker class

    • Conservative landowner

  • Machiavellian

  • Use of Realpolitik

  • “The great decisions of the day will not be decided by speeches and majorities, but by blood & iron.”

    • Willing to start wars to accomplish goals

Steps toward unification
Steps Toward Unification

  • Series of Wars to unify German states

    • Second war of Schleswig (1864),

    • the 7 Weeks War (1866),

    • the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)


  • Second war of Schleswig (1864)

    • Prussians demand territory from Denmark

    • Austrians join with Prussia

    • Denmark easily defeated

    • Prussians get Schleswig & Austrians get Holstein


  • 7 Weeks War

    • Bismarck launched war against old ally, Austria

      • Wanted to remove Austrian influence from German states

        • Austria had control of Holstein

    • Superior German forces destroyed the Austrians

Results of 7 weeks war
Results of 7 Weeks War

  • Prussia to annex some territory from Austria

  • Italy regains Venetia

  • Bismarck excluded long-time rival Austria and most of its allies from the German Confederation

  • Formed North German Confederation with the states that had supported Prussia

  • Ended Austrian dominance of the German nations

Causes of the franco prussian war
Causes of the Franco-Prussian War

  • German Prince Leopold offered throne of Spain.

  • Following the protests in France, Leopold had withdrawn his acceptance in July 1870

    • Why would France be upset?

  • French wanted a guarantee by the Prussian king that no member of his Hohenzollern family would ever be a candidate for the Spanish throne.

  • Ems Dispatch issued leading to war

The ems dispatch
The Ems Dispatch

  • The French had made certain demands under threat of war; Wilhelm had refused them

  • It was designed to give the French the impression that King Wilhelm I had insulted Count Benedetti

  • Bismarck edited the Dispatch to make it look like the French had been insulted

  • Bismarck intended to give France an opportunity to declare a war as part of his plan to unify Germany

  • The French public was outraged; declared War July 1870

The franco prussian war
The Franco-Prussian War

  • German forces superior

  • Efficiently used the railroads

  • Used steel artillery

  • Prussian and German victories in eastern France

  • Battle of Sedan on 1 September 1870

    • Napoleon III was captured with his whole army

End of the franco prussian war
End of The Franco Prussian War

  • German armies easily defeated the newly recruited French armies

  • Paris fell on January 28, 1871.

  • January 18, 1871: the German states had proclaimed their union under the Prussian King, uniting Germany as a nation-state, the German Empire.

    • Proclaimed in the Palace of Versailles

Unified germany
Unified Germany

  • 25 states

  • 1871 Constitution of the German Empire

  • Reichstag (parliament) elected by direct and equal male suffrage

  • Prussia dominated the executive power


  • Who was the man responsible for the unification of Germany?

  • How many German states were there before unification?

  • What tactic did the unifier of Germany use to unify Germany?

  • Where was the new Germany born?

Wichtige frage1
Wichtige Frage

  • How does nationalism shape Europe in the 19th century?

  • In what way(s) was the Congress of Vienna successful (or not) with regard to their efforts to squash nationalism?

  • How does the creation of a new, united Germany change the balance of power in Europe?