States of Matter Preview Section 1 Three States of Matter Section 2 Behavior of Gases Section 3 Changes of State Concept Mapping
Section1 Three States of Matter Bellringer In the kitchen, you might find three different forms of water. What are these three forms of water, and where exactly in the kitchen would you find them? Further, how do you use water in each of these forms? Record your answers in your notebookl.
Section1 Three States of Matter Objectives • Describe the properties shared by particles of all matter. • Describe three states of matter. • Explain the differences between the states of matter.
Section1 Three States of Matter Particles of Matter • The states of matter are the physical forms in which a substance can exist. The three most familiar states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. • Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms and molecules. These particles are always in motion and are always bumping into one another.
Section1 Three States of Matter Particles of Matter, continued • The particles in matter interact with each other. • The way the particles interact with each other helps determine the state of the matter. • Generally, particles within a substance are attracted to each other. • It takes energy to get the particles moving fast enough to overcome this attraction.
Section1 Three States of Matter Solids • Asolidis the state of matter that has a definite shape and volume. • The particles in a solid do not move fast enough to overcome the attraction between them. • Each particle vibrates in place and is locked in place by the particles around it.
Section1 Three States of Matter There Are Two Kinds of Solids: Crystalline solids and Amorphous solids
Section1 Three States of Matter • 1. Crystalline solids • * Particles have a very orderly, three-dimensional arrangement. • * Iron, diamond, and ice are crystalline solids. • 2. Amorphous solids • * Particles do not have a special arrangement. • * Glass, rubber, and wax are amorphous solids.
Section1 Three States of Matter Liquids • Liquid is the state of matter that has a definite volume and but takes the shape of its container. • The particles of a liquid move fast enough to overcome some of the attraction between them. • The particles in a liquid slide past each other.
Section1 Three States of Matter • Liquids Have Unique Characteristics • Two special properties of liquids are surface tension and viscosity. • 1. Surface tensionis a force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid. Allows bubbles to happen. • 2. Viscosityis a liquid’s resistance to flow. • “Highly viscous” means very resistant to flow. Like molasses.
Section1 Three States of Matter Gases • Gas: is the state of matter that has no definite shape or volume. • SO – What state of matter has no definite shape or volume? • Gas particles move quickly and can break away completely from one another. • The amount of empty space between gas particles (its volume) can change, depending on temp and pressure.
Section2 Behavior of Gases Bellringer What gas is used to fill balloons that will float in the air? How does a hot-air balloon float if it is filled only with air and not helium? Record your ideas and answers in your notebook.
Section2 Behavior of Gases Objectives • Describe three factors that affect how gases behave • Predicthow a change in pressure or temperature will affect the volume of a gas.
Section2 Behavior of Gases Describing Gas Behavior. 3 Factors • 1. Temperature A measure of how fast the particles in an object, any object, are moving. • The faster the particles are moving, the more energy (temp/heat) they have. • 2. VolumeIt’s the amount of space that an object takes up. Affected by temp and pressure. • Gases take the volume of the container they are in.
Section2 Behavior of Gases Describing Gas Behavior, continued 3.PressureThe amount of force exerted on a given area of surface is called pressure., like “PSI,” pounds per square inch. Normal car-tire pressure is 32-35 psi. You can think of pressure as the number of times the particles of a gas hit the inside of their container. * Gases can be compressed more than liquids. They are more “compressible.”
Section2 Behavior of Gases • More on Temperature A measure of how fast the particles in an object, any object, are moving. • The faster the particles are moving, the more energy each particle has. • The faster the particles are moving, the more times they hit the walls of the container they are in. This is pressure. • * In a container with rigid walls, what do you think happens to pressure as the temperature increases?
Section2 Behavior of Gases More on PressureThe amount of force exerted on a given area of surface is called pressure., like “PSI,” (pounds per square inch) or “atmospheres.” Normal car-tire pressure is 32-35 psi. The atmosphere presses on us. At sea level, that pressure is 14.6 psi. This is called one atmosphere. Water presses on things submerged in it. At 1,000 feet down, water pressure on a submarine is about 441 psi. Modern submarines can collapse at about 1,600 feet down.
Section2 Behavior of Gases Gas Behavior and “The Gas Laws” • Key factors in gas behavior: • Volume • Temperature • Pressure • These factors are linked. • If one changes, the others change. • The gas laws are built on these links.
Section2 Behavior of Gases Gas Behavior Laws • Boyle’s LawBoyle’s law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas is inversely related to pressure. • Charles’s LawCharles’s law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas changes in the same way that the temperature of the gas changes.
Section2 Behavior of Gases • Boyle’s Law • Relates volume and pressure. Temp stays same. • Boyle’s law states: For a fixed/set amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas is inversely related to pressure. • In other words…well, be able to restate it, please. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZoGtVVu3ymQ&list=PLXGY0
Section2 Behavior of Gases • Charles’ Law • Relates volume and temperature. Pressure same. • “Charles is tempermental.” • Charles’ law states: for a fixed/set amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas is directly proportional to temperature. • In other words…restate it, please. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oIfFoiwRCVE
Section3 Changes of State Bellringer What must be done to liquid water to change it to ice or to change it to steam? Given your hypothesis about changing water’s state, write a prediction of what must happen, in general, to cause matter to change state. Do you think all matter conforms to the same rules? Why or why not? Record your answers in your notebook.
Section3 Changes of State Objectives • Describe how energy is involved in changes of state. • Describe what happens during melting and freezing. • Compare evaporation and condensation. • Explain what happens during sublimation. • Identify the two changes that can happen when a substance loses or gains energy.
Section3 Changes of State Energy and Changes of State • A change of state (phase change) is the change of a substance from one physical form to another. • These are physical, NOT chemical, changes. No new stuff. • The particles of a substance move differently with each other depending on the state of the substance. • The particles also have different amounts of energy when the substance is in different states.
Section3 Changes of State Melting: Solid to Liquid • Melting: change of state from a solid to a liquid. • Melting point (MP): temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid • Adding Energy For a solid to melt, particles must have enough energy to overcome their attractions to each other. • They gain enough energy so that they’re no longer locked in place (solid), but have enough energy to slide past each other
Section3 Changes of State Melting: Solid to Liquid • When a solid is at its melting point, any energy added is used first to overcome attractions between particles… • …until the melting is complete. THEN the liquid itself will start to heat up. • On the Phase Diagram, this is a level area.
Section3 Changes of State Know what’s going on here. Liquid all boiled to gas Ice cube begins melting Liquid heating up Liquid begins boiling Ice cube all melted to liquid Ice cube heating up
Section3 Changes of State Melting: Solid to Liquid • Heat is added to the substance in melting. • And in boiling. • That makes melting (and boiling) ENDOTHERMIC changes. • Heat/energy goes “EN.”
Section3 Changes of State Freezing: Liquid to Solid • Energy is removed. • When a liquid is at its freezing point, removing energy will cause the particles to begin locking into place. • Freezing is the change of state from a liquid to a solid. The temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid is its freezing point. • In a substance, freezing point equals melting point.
Section3 Changes of State Freezing: Liquid to Solid • Heat/energy is taken away from the substance in freezing. • And in condensation. • That makes freezing and condensation EXOTHERMIC changes. • Heat/energy EX-its.
Section3 Changes of State Evaporation and Boiling: Liquid to Gas • Energy is added in each. Endothermic change. • Evaporation is the change of state from a liquid to a gas below its boiling point, Evaporation can occur at the surface of a liquid when particles gain enough energy to escape from the surface. • This energy come from the surroundings. Ex. coffee cup losing liquid • Human body cools by evaporation. Heat comes off skin, makes skin cooler
Section3 Changes of State Evaporation and Boiling: Liquid to Gas • Vapor Pressure: tendency of particles in a substance to go to the gaseous state, form a gas. • Boilingis the change of a liquid to a gasthroughout the liquid. The temperature at which a liquid boils is its boiling point (BP).
Section3 Changes of State • Effects of Pressure on Boiling Point • Atmospheric pressure is caused by the downward weight of the gases in the atmosphere. It can press down on the surface of a liquid, as in a saucepan. • This pressure affects how easily gas particles can escape the surface of the liquid. • When atmospheric pressure goes up, boiling point goes up (particles need to gain more energy to escape into atmosphere from liquid’s surface)
Section3 Changes of State • Effects of Pressure on Boiling Point • When atmospheric pressure is lower, is less pressure on the surface of the liquid. • Makes it easier for gas particles to escape from the liquid surface • Atmospheric pressure is lower at higher elevations. So, the boiling point is lower on top of mountains, or in Denver, than it is at sea level – less pressure
Section3 Changes of State Condensation: Gas to Liquid • Condensation is the change of state from a gas to a liquid. The condensation point of a substance is the temperature at which the gas becomes a liquid. • Energy removed for condensation to occur. Exothermic change. • This slows the movement of gas particles. Allows the force of attraction among particles to have a chance to act. • Allows them chance to clump together.
Section3 Changes of State Sublimation: Solid to Gas • Sublimation: change of state in which a solid changes directly into a gas. • Liquid phase is skipped. • For sublimation to occur, the attractions between the particles must be completely overcome. • So, the substance must gain energy during sublimation.
Section3 Changes of State Change of Temperature Vs. Change of State • When most substances lose or gain energy, either its temperature changes or its state changes. • Adding energy/heat does not always cause a temperature change. • Temperature of a substance does not change during the change of state. • The graph on the next slide shows how temperature changes as energy is added to ice.
Section3 Changes of State Liquid all boiled to gas Ice cube begins melting Liquid heating up Liquid begins boiling Ice cube all melted to liquid Ice cube heating up
Section3 Changes of State D C B A Know what’s happening at points A, B, C, D, E, and at MP and BP
States of Matter Concept Mapping Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. changes of state liquid condensing melting states of matter evaporating solid