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INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEMS Day 1/2

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INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEMS Day 1/2

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  1. The Warsaw School of Computer Science INTELLIGENT CONTROL SYSTEMSDay 1/2 Prof. Marian S. Stachowicz Laboratory for Intelligent Systems ECE Department, University of Minnesota, USA Warsaw, Poland, May 16 –22, 2014

  2. References for reading • R.C. Dorf and R.H. Bishop,Modern Control Systems, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2008, Chapter 1.1 - 1.10 2. J.J. DiStefano, A. R. Stubberud, I. J. Williams,Feeedback and Control Systems,Schaum's Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1990 Chapters 1, 2 Intelligent Control Systems

  3. Control • The word control is usually taken to mean : - regulate, - direct, - command. Intelligent Control Systems

  4. Control system • A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response. Intelligent Control Systems

  5. The Input – Output relationship represent the Cause – Effect relationship Intelligent Control Systems

  6. Input • The input is the stimulus, excitation or command applied to a control system. • Typically from external energy source, usually in order to produce a specified response from the control system. Intelligent Control Systems

  7. Output • The output is the actual response obtained from a control system. • It may or may not be equal to specified response implied by the input. Intelligent Control Systems

  8. Open Loop No feedback Difficult to control output with accuracy Closed Loop Must have feedback Must have sensor on output Almost always negative feedback Two Types of Control Systems Intelligent Control Systems

  9. Open-loop control An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device to control the process directly without using feedback. A common example of an open-loop control system is an electric toaster in the kitchen. Intelligent Control Systems

  10. Intelligent Control Systems

  11. Closed-loop control A closed-loop control system uses a measurement of the output and feedback of this signal to compare it with the desired output. Intelligent Control Systems

  12. Intelligent Control Systems

  13. Open or Closed loop control system? Intelligent Control Systems

  14. Manual control system Goal: Regulate the level of fluid by adjusting the output valve. The input is a reference level of fluid and is memorized by operator. The power amplifier is the operator. The sensor is visual. Operator compares the actual level with the desired level and opens or closes the valve ( actuator). Intelligent Control Systems

  15. The level of fluid in a tank control. Intelligent Control Systems

  16. Manual steering an automobile Intelligent Control Systems

  17. Terms and concepts • Automation- The control of a process by automatic means. • Closed-loop feedback control system - A system that uses a measurement of the output and compares it with the desired output. Intelligent Control Systems

  18. Design-The process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts, and details of a system to achieve a specified purpose. Feedback signal -A measure of the output of the system used for feedback to control the system. Multivariable control system -A system with more than one input variable or more than one output variable. Intelligent Control Systems

  19. Negative feedback -The output signal is fed back so that it subtracts from the input signal. Open-loop control system -A system that utilizes a device to control the process without using feedback. Optimization -The adjustment of the parameters to achieve the most favorable or advantageous design. Intelligent Control Systems

  20. Positive feedback-The output signal is fed back so that it adds to the input signal. Process-The device, plant, or system under control. Productivity -The ratio of physical output to physical input of an industrial process. Intelligent Control Systems

  21. Robot -Programmable computers integrated with a manipulator. Synthesis -The combining of separate elements or devices to form a coherent whole. System -An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose. Intelligent Control Systems

  22. The Control System Design Process

  23. Engineering design • Design is the process of conceiving or inventing the forms, parts, and details of a system to achieve a specified purpose. • It is the central task of the engineer. • It is a complex process in which both creativity and analysis play major role. Intelligent Control Systems

  24. Complexity, trade-off, gaps, and risk are inherent in designing new systems and devices. Intelligent Control Systems

  25. Trade-off The result of making a judgment about how to compromise between conflicting criteria. Intelligent Control Systems

  26. Goals Twin goals of understanding and controlling are complementary because effective systems control requires that the systems be understood and modeled. Intelligent Control Systems

  27. Control engineering Control engineering is based on the foundations of feedback theory and linear system analysis, and it integrates the concepts of network theory and communication theory. Intelligent Control Systems

  28. Given a process, how to design a feedback control system? Three steps: • Modeling. Obtain mathematical description of the systems. • Analysis. Analyze the properties of the system. • Design. Given a plant, design a controller based on performance specifications. The course spans each of these steps in that sequence. Intelligent Control Systems

  29. The basis for analysis of a system is the foundation provided by linear system theory, which assumes a cause-effect relationship for the components of a system. Intelligent Control Systems

  30. Intelligent Control Systems

  31. Design 1 Intelligent Control Systems

  32. Design 2 Intelligent Control Systems

  33. Design 3 Intelligent Control Systems

  34. The design of control systems is a specific example of engineering design. The goal of control engineering design is to obtain the configuration, specifications, and identification of the key parameters of a proposed system to meet an actual need. Intelligent Control Systems

  35. The design process consists of seven main building blocks, which are arrange into three groups: • Establishment of goals and variables to be controlled, and definition of specifications against which to measure performance. • System definition and modeling. • Control system design and integrated system simulation and analysis Intelligent Control Systems

  36. Design examples

  37. Rotating disk speed control Intelligent Control Systems

  38. Step 1. Control goal • Design a system that will held a rotating disk at a constant speed. Ensure that the actual speed of rotation is within a specified percentage of desired speed. Intelligent Control Systems

  39. Step 2. Variable to be controlled • Speed of rotation disc Intelligent Control Systems

  40. Step 3. Control design specification • Design a system that will ensure that the actual speed of rotation is within a specified percentage of desired speed. Intelligent Control Systems

  41. Step 4. Preliminary system configuration Intelligent Control Systems

  42. Step 4 Preliminary system configuration Intelligent Control Systems

  43. With precision components, we could expect to reduce the error of the feedback system to one-hundredth of error of the open-loop system. Intelligent Control Systems

  44. Insulin delivery system

  45. Step 1. Control goal • Design a system to regulate the blood sugar concentration of a diabetic by controlled dispensing of insulin. Intelligent Control Systems

  46. The blood glucose and insulin concentrations for a healthy person. Intelligent Control Systems

  47. Step 2. Variable to be controlled • Blood glucose concentration Intelligent Control Systems

  48. Step 3. Control design specification • Provide a blood glucose level for the diabetic that closely approximates the glucose level of a healthy person. Intelligent Control Systems

  49. Step 4 Preliminary system configurations Intelligent Control Systems

  50. E 4.1 Tracking the sun Gc(s) = 1 H(s) = 1 N(s) = 0 G(s) = 100/( s + 1) Intelligent Control Systems