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Faculty of Education. ED 564: Administration of Inclusive Schools. Saturday, January 14, 2012. Introduction to the Course. Class Outline. Introduction to the Course Review of the Syllabus What is inclusion? Issues Involved with Inclusion?

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ed 564 administration of inclusive schools

Faculty of Education

ED 564: Administration of Inclusive Schools

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Introduction to the Course

class outline
Class Outline

Introduction to the Course

Review of the Syllabus

What is inclusion? Issues Involved with Inclusion?

How Did We Get Here? A Brief History of the Inclusionary Movement

Educating Peter (video)

what is inclusion issues involved with inclusion
What is Inclusion? Issues Involved with Inclusion
  • What does inclusion mean to you?
  • How comfortable are you with the principle that all children should be included in the regular classroom?
  • In what ways are individuals still segregated in schools in 2011?
  • What if any are the ongoing issues surrounding inclusion?
how did we get here a brief history of the inclusionary movement
How Did We Get Here? A Brief History of the Inclusionary Movement
  • Inclusion is still a relatively new area of policy development.
  • In the late 1800s to the late 1960s, special education centered around the creation of “separate schools” for slow learners.
In fact, provision of special education in this period was seen as a service ancillary to the regular school system.
  • Part of the reluctance to provide special education in regular schools was a result of the dominance of eugenics, which argued that special needs students were best served outside of the regular system.
In the 1960s, eugenics was being discredited, and progressivism was beginning to take center stage.
  • As well, new methods for screening and identification were emerging, coupled with demands by parents that exceptional students should be educated in regular classrooms.
As well, in the early 1970s the normalization principle emerged, which argued that all persons should live and learn in environments as close to normal as possible.
In 1975, Public Law 94-142, The Education for All Handicapped Children Act was passed, which guaranteed that exceptional students should be educated in the least restrictive environment.
In 1980, the Government of Ontario passed Bill 82, the Education Amendment Act, which guaranteed special education services free of charge to all parents whose son or daughter was deemed to be exceptional.
In 1982, the Government of Canada, through the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, guaranteed the rights of all individuals.
15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
By the 1990s, inclusion had been accepted as the preferred method for educating all students.
  • The philosophical basis for inclusion is that all students should be included in the regular classroom as much as possible.
In Nova Scotia, Bill 39, An Act Respecting Education (1993), was the genesis of special education services.
As well, the Special Education Policy Manual

(2008) provides more details as to what special

education in Nova Scotia looks like.

  • Right to an Appropriate Education
  • Right to Quality Education and Qualified Teachers
  • Right to Inclusive Education
  • Teacher’s Responsibility
  • Parental Involvement
  • Individual Program Plan
  • Collaboration
The Public School Programs (PSP) is also

relevant in that it stipulates that the schools and

teachers must help all students develop to their

full potential cognitively, affectively, physically

and socially.

The Nova Scotia Education Act must also be


• Section 26 – Duties of a Teacher

• (f) acknowledge and, to the extent

reasonable, accommodate differences in

learning styles;

• (g) participate in individual-program planning

and implement individual program plans, as

required, for students with special needs;

Some of the other notable documents that relate to special education in Nova Scotia are:
  • Teacher Assistant Guidelines (2009)
  • Challenge for Excellence (1999)
  • Supporting Student Success: Resource

Programming & Services (2002)

Transition Planning in Nova Scotia: The Early Years Through to Adult Life (2005)
  • Assistive Technology Guide (2006)
  • Program Planning Guide for Parents (2009)
educating peter the administrator s role in inclusion
Educating PeterThe Administrator’s Role in Inclusion
  • After watching this video, what issues/problems might the inclusion of a student such as Peter create for a school administrator?
final thoughts
Final Thoughts
  • Clearly, we’ve moved towards creating classrooms that are inclusionary
  • To a large degree, the notion of inclusion is generally accepted by those involved in public education
The major dilemma we see is that teachers and administrators still struggle with the actual implementation of inclusion
  • This is indeed problematic, and perhaps one of the most important roles of administrators is that of instructional leadership
That is, helping teachers understand how inclusion works, and how they might implement it successfully in their respective classrooms
  • Not an easy task, but definitely a most important one!