PRACTICAL PEARLS FOR NEARLY PAINLESS LOCAL ANESTHESIA. JOHN K. GEISSE, MD SOLANO DERMATOLOGY ASSOCIATES 2290 SACRAMENTO STREET VALLEJO, CA 94590 CLINICAL PROFESSOR DEPARTMENTS OF DERMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CA, SAN FRANCISCO.
JOHN K. GEISSE, MD
SOLANO DERMATOLOGY ASSOCIATES
2290 SACRAMENTO STREET
VALLEJO, CA 94590
DEPARTMENTS OF DERMATOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF CA, SAN FRANCISCO
1. Benzodiazepines: PO or sublingual
* IV precautions with sublingual
1. PO Codeine/hydrocodone acetaminophen compounds
2. IM narcotics need IV precautions
a. Naloxone, epinephrine, and crash cart
1. PO or IM hydroxyzine no longer available have not found a substitute yet
D. VALIUM 5-10 MG SL PLUS RARELY DEMEROL 50-100 MG FOR PROLONGED ORDIFFICULT CASES.
A. Benzocaine compounds: Intraoral or mucosal
1. Pina Colada
B. Lidocaine gels and EMLA
1. Prior to needle puncture, laser therapy and dermabrasion.
A. Lidocaine +/- epinephrine.
1. Buffered: 1 part sodium bicarbonate (8.4% or
1 mEq/ml) to 9 (10) parts 1% lidocaine with
1. Mepivacaine: faster, longer, and safer. $$
2. Prilocaine: slow, methemogobinemia.
3. Bupivacaine: slower, longer (up to 4 hr. block).
4. Etidocaine: ideal, better than bupivacaine. $$
1. Allergy; very rare to amides; usu vasovagal
2. Systemic side effects: CNS, cardiovascular,
pregnancy-toxicity to fetus
3. Maximum recommended dosages:
a. Lidocaine with epinephrine:
Adults; 7.5 mg/kg, 500 mg total
(50 ml of 1% with epi; only 25ml without epi)
Children; 1.5-2.5 mg/kg (0.5% recommended)
4. Epinephrine and Beta Blockers; dilute to
1:200,000 (hypertensive crisis, headache)
. Most “toxicity” is from the epinephrine effect
1. E.G. 2% lidocaine has greater toxicity than 1% without significantly greater efficacy (50ML 1% Lido= 12ML 2% Lido)
4. Tumescent anesthesia has different parameters; absorption peak 12hrs
1. Diphenhydramine (12.5-5-25mg/ml) with
epinephrine 1; 200,000.
2. Normal Saline preserved with benzyl alcohol
a. can add epi for prolonged effect
3. Refrigerant sprays and ice cubes.
A. Regional Blocks:
2. Digital: Beware of vascular compromise,
metacarpal method preferred
B. Subcutaneous vs. Intradermal injection:
Hurried anxiety producing behavior;
Sudden needle sticks (the “stab” technique);
Forceful or rapid tissue infiltration causing tissue distension, especially with intradermal injection;
Injection of plantar/palmer surfaces (use blocks and lateral approaches);
Avoid hitting bone with the needle
1. 30 gauge needles; 1 inch long
2. Injection through cutaneous pores
3. Slow, careful infiltration; infiltrate as one
advances the needle slowly, subq first
4. Distraction: massage or vibration;
an assistant who “hand holds” and chats with the patient
5. Buffered lidocaine and freshly mixed
6. Reinject in anesthetized areas; minimize sticks
1. Auletta MJ, Grekin RC: Local Anesthesia For Dermatologic Surgery. From the series
Practical Manuals In Dermatologic Surgery, Churchill Livingstone, 1990.
2. Grekin RC, Auletta MJ: Local Anesthesia in Dermatologic Surgery. J AM Acad Deramtol
3. McKay W, et al: Sodium bicarbonate attenuates pain on skin infiltration with lidocaine
with or without epinephrine. Anesthesia Analogues pp. 572-574, 1987.
4. Stewart JH, et al: Neutralized Lidocaine with epinephrine for local anesthesia. J
Dermatol Surg Oncol 15:10, 1989
5. Ashinoff R, Geronemus RG: Effect of the topical anesthetic EMLA on the Efficacy of
pulsed dye laser treatment of port-wine stains. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 16:11, 1990.
6. Lahteenmaki T, et al: Topical analgesia for the cutting of split-skin grafts: a multicenter comparison of two doses of a lidocaine/prilocaine cream. Plastic and Reconstr Surg 82:3, 1988.
7. Physicians Desk Reference, 45th edition, 1991.
8. Bennett RG: Fundamentals of Cutaneous Surgery, C.V. Mosby Company, 1988.
9. Larson PO, et al: Stability of Buffered Lidocaine and Epinephrine Used for Local
Anesthesia. J Dermatol Surg. Oncol 1991; 17:411-414.