slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Contents - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION and TRAINING (TVET) SECTOR MAPPING IN KENYA For the Dutch Schokland TVET programme By: John Nyerere. Contents. Background Purpose and Organization of study Supply Side – Education and Training Demand Side – Labour market

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Contents' - yardley-hanson

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
  • Background
    • Purpose and Organization of study
  • Supply Side – Education and Training
  • Demand Side – Labour market
  • Cross cutting Issues and Observations
  • Conclusions
1 0 general introduction
Globally education is acknowledged as a means for transforming and empowering the youth with skills, knowledge and, attitudes to enable them become productive members of the society.

In 2000, Govt leaders of 189 countries decided to focus efforts on poverty reduction - on MDGs.

In 2007, the Netherlands Government decided to boost achieving the MDGs through a common effort - The Pact of Schokland - Project 2015, which aims to put on track MDGs.

1.0 General Introduction
purpose of mapping
Purpose of Mapping
  • To identify existing stakeholders and their interests in TIVET;
    • Past experiences and good practices regarding demand and supply of TVET;
    • Strong and weak elements of the TIVET sector.
  • The importance of the exercise lies in the establishment of relevancy for future partnerships’ activities.
  • The results of the mapping process will function as a guide for the further development of country and partnership proposals, which may need to be modified or updated.
  • Review of various documents relating to Government policy, strategy and economic survey- Vision 2030, PRSP, KESSP, Labour sector that deal with TIVET
  • Discussions with key officials
  • Focus on
    • Supply side issues- Education and training
    • Demand side issues- labour market
    • Isuues and observations
2 supply side general introduction
2. Supply side General Introduction
  • In Kenya TIVET includes;
      • Technical training institutions,
      • MSE training and demonstration centres,
      • Youth polytechnics and National Youth Service Skills Development Centres.
  • TIVET programmes are offered in;
      • Youth Polytechnics
      • Technical Training Institutes
      • Institutes of Technology and,
      • National Polytechnics.
supply introduction cont
Supply Introduction Cont…

Aims and Purpose of TIVET in Kenya

  • Involve all relevant stakeholders in the development of a comprehensive national skills training strategy.
  • Establish mechanisms and appropriate incentives to promote private sector investments
  • Provide loans and bursaries to enhance access to TIVET.
  • Establish a national coordinating bodyTIVETA.
  • Mobilize resources to rehabilitate facilities in public TIVET institutions.
structure of education and training system
Structure of Education and Training System
























Above 18





14 to 18












PRIMARY (Formal and NFE)


6 to 14

4 to 6










  • Total enrolment in TIVET institutions was;
    • Kenya Polytechnic had the highest enrolment among the national polytechnics.
  • Majority of female students (52.4%) are enrolled in business studies related courses compared to less than 5 % in engineering programmes.
tivet policies in kenya
TIVET Policies in Kenya
  • Policy Documents Guiding TIVET in Kenya;
    • Sessional Paper No. 5 of 2005
    • KESSP
    • Vision 2030
    • Gender Policy in Education
    • Youth Policy (Draft)
tivet policies in kenya1
TIVET Policies in Kenya…

Key policies

  • Development of the national training strategy for TIVET in 2005 and ensuring that TIVET institutions are adequately funded and equipped by 2008.
  • Gender Policy in Education that seeks to increase;
    • enrolment, retention, transition and achievement in TIVET, especially for girls and women.
  • Legal frame work for TIVET has been reviewed (TIVET Bill).
  • This is to provide for the establishment of a TIVET Authority to oversee the TIVET systems in the country (GoK 2008).
donors involved in tivet programmes
Donors Involved in TIVET Programmes
  • World bank
  • The Netherlands
  • African Development Bank
  • JICA
  • Italian Government
  • Microsoft
issues in tivet supply side
Issues in TIVET – supply side
  • Policies are in place – desire to form TIVETA to help focus – Awaiting Action
  • Funds are being sought – From ADB and other donors
  • Some investments have been made especially in polytechnics
  • Kenya & Mombasa polytechnics are now University colleges
  • Suggestions for Incentives for private sector involvement through the inclusive education policy.
issues in tivet supply side1
Issues in TIVET – supply side
  • Gender imbalances in enrolment and in different fields of study.
  • Terminal nature of TIVET.
  • Shortage of TIVET opportunities particularly in rural/marginalized areas- the institutions are few compared to demand- number of school leavers at class 8 (300,000 annually Vs Annual enrolment of approximately 80,000)- capacity to be determined.
  • Relevance of TIVET syllabus
issues cont
Issues cont…
  • Lack of sufficient training opportunities for TIVET at higher levels – Post graduate – Conversion of Technical schools to Technical Training, National Polytechnics to Colleges – need for balance not to hurt TIVET
  • TIVET is still at planning level.
  • Disconnect between market demands and TIVET supply (labour)- deeper culture /image issues
  • Dramatic budget cuts – lack of interest by donors towards the sector based on funding trends – to UPE
labour policies
Labour Policies

The Employment Act No. 11 of 2007

  • Defines the fundamental rights of employees;
  • Provides basic conditions of employees and,
  • Regulates employment of children.

The Labour Institutions Act No. 12 of 2007

  • Regulates the establishment of labour institutions to provide for their functions, powers and duties.
labour policies1
Labour Policies…

The Occupational safety and Health act No. 15 of 2007

  • Provides for the safety, health and welfare of;
      • Persons employed and,
      • Persons lawfully present at work places and related matters.
  • Objective a good national wage policy;
      • assure wage earners a reasonable share of the national product,
      • promote a harmonious and just relationship between employers and workers and,
      • be responsive to the demands of the economy.
labour policies2
Labour Policies…

Work Injury Benefits No. 13 of 2007 Act

  • Deals with compensation to employees for injuries suffered and occupational diseases contracted in the course of employment,

The Labour Relations Act No. 14 of 2007

  • deals with the;
    • registration,
    • regulation,
    • management and,
    • democratization of trade unions.
  • This promote sound labour relations.
the informal sector
The Informal Sector
  • There is an increasing number of employees who are in the informal sector by preference.
    • This is irrespective of whether they are able to join the formal sector or not.
  • The informal sector- is the largest sector and is growing
    • Is labour intensive, exploits adaptive technology,
    • acquires skills outside formal sector and,
    • operates in unregulated and competitive markets –
  • Devolved Funding has created demand for services at community levels requiring skills of TIVET graduates – Areas Of Construction, Metal work
  • Technological advancements expanded the skills requirements especially in ICT- Techno parks
unemployment rates focus on youth and gender
Unemployment Rates - Focus on Youth and Gender.
  • The Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions highly affected by youth unemployment.
  • It is estimated to be more than 21% (ILO: 2003).
  • It is estimated that 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth.
  • The government envisages an intervention that involves a cross-section of existing TIVET institutions and provision of a new technical training institute to each of the country’s 8 provinces.
transition from school to work
Transition from School to Work

Existing Approaches To Improve Transition

Creation of Industrial Incubators

  • The objectives of this initiative is to create industrial incubators in order to inspire and enable TIVET graduates set up small innovative growth oriented business enterprises for self-employment and enhance transfer of technology for industrial development.
  • To enhance transtion from primary to TIVET, the government has set the objective of school leavers accessing TIVET programmes through improved infrustucture and training.
issues for demand side
Issues for demand side
  • Many initiatives have been undertaken
    • Restructuring of the Ministry of labour to revamp institutions like DIT and creation of Productivity the productivity centre
    • Review of various legislations and policies
    • Partnerships with the private sector like FKE and universities
    • Planned Investments in ICT – Fibre optics, Techno Villages
issues for demand side1
Issues for demand side
  • Employment is only growing in the informal sector but dominated by unskilled labour
  • Unemployment rates high among the youth – in crisis - approaching disaster
  • Employers are yet to apprceaite the need for well trained Human resources – DIT has reviewed its policies but not many are taking up the incentives as should be.
  • Questions arise on relevance of Training in relations to skills required generally in Sub-Saharan Africa – skills needed in the labour market.
    • There needs to be a national skills inventory - backed by an efficient labour market information system.
the way forward from understanding to practical support
The Way Forward: From Understanding To Practical Support
  • TIVETA will ensure effective coordination, management and governance of TIVET systems for inclusiveness in training in the country.
  • Initiatives aimed at achieving gender parity in the TIVET system will continue to be developed and implemented by the government.
  • MOE to fast-track the establishment of a national qualifications framework so as to realize inclusive education in TIVET, and other levels of education.
  • Revise technical, industrial and vocational education and training (TIVET) so that it reflects the needs of industry and the labor market.
  • Promote partnerships with the private sector, development partners;
  • Government should continuaaly undertake research to deepen understanding of issues on sector and play role of regulator - rather than providing training itself.
  • Vocationalise general to intergrate students into the work force and expose them to a range of skills and experiences
  • Establish more linkages between TIVET and other sectors – adress the culture and image associated with TIVET
  • Better coordination between the formal and informal training systems
  • Orient TIVET towards sustainable development
  • Promote broad access to learning and training and make TIVET an instrument for social inclusiveness and cohesion
comments after the presentation
Comments – after the presentation
  • How can we move from the tradition – are we prepared for the technology – how can we move fast so that we catch up – Example of Carpentry sector- Turkey/ Mexico – has become an industry – even exporting to Kenya – Competitive Business Driven
  • Create a parallel education sector for TIVET tapping the youth from childhood – harmonize for flexibility
  • Can their be a Growth path for TIVET
  • Internship – need to develop a mentorship Model program with clear institutional networks and membership to develop people – start from Edukans
  • Tension – Supply/Demand – Graduates are exploited by employers –contributing to negative culture towards TIVET- what do we need to do to make them better- self employment – business skills
  • Re think emphasis on learn for work program – training is for empowerment- also to apply the training – empower to include to be entrepreneurship- level 2 empowerment.
  • Multiplicity of stakeholders – can it create focus on tackling the problem or is a non function structure – Must lead to ACTION and DELIVERY
  • What examples are we learning from the north or south/ East- west etc.- Future is resource based – Africa has all
  • Culture is a challenge
  • Graduates of form 4 will go through NYS- is being focused in youth policy
  • Informal sector training – how do we facilitate for recognition – the government cannot handle the numbers – what form of institutions do we need to create quality- take care of challenges- HIV, poverty- but people need skills
Mismatch in education/training and labor market – we need to emphasize sciences – should be made basic – choice, availability of information to support decision making- availability and accessibility- career mapping and advice is lacking
  • Sort out things from down – i.e. curriculum harmonization's
  • TIVET – Labor market – Gap between TIVET and labor market –
    • Should we have TIVET under education or as a stand alone focused on labor market needs+ self employment
      • Skills are lacking – mechanism of being up to date – investments in training institutions – partnerships between institutions and corporate
  • Decline in enrollment– what factors – supply or demand – both
  • Industries are not competitive – lack of investments in all resources –
  • Cost of production – electricity is expensive – use Jetropha people/UNDP
  • Quality of TIVET teachers is low
  • Mismatch of resources ( planning, utilization and process)
  • Orientation at primary school – syllabus excludes technical subjects eliminating access to choice – education is not giving the basic life skills training
  • Education system – focuses on doing but not understanding -
  • Historical paths- injustices – rewards in academic has favored academic not technical- creating inferiority complex – ranking – distortion of the education sector
    • Only technical skills not backed up with commercial skills – carpentry – sells do Indian Dukawalla
    • Relating skills acquisition to life skills
    • Does the proposed budget meet the challenge – what impact?

TIVETA- should be well designed to avoid conflict and create focus Authority

Focus on both

  • Macro – Govt – at international – Indian market – move into international Trade
  • Micro – capacity build
    • Skills are there- innovation, creativity to focus on the market- we need business people or a multiplicity of professional
    • Link with labor market- it changes so how do you link – entrepreneurship – dynamics of labor markets
  • Time bomb – 2012 – may be dangerous
  • What can we do to avert this
    • Youth – provide hope – technology- business parks – link to BPO’s create an army of new workers develop business skills
    • University conversions – culture change – lobby –