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HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx. Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat Nasal Cavity and Breathing Mouth and Chewing Throat and Swallowing Larynx and Singing . Sagittal Section Head. Cranial cavity Brain/Spinal cord Vertebral bodies Epaxial muscles Hard/soft palate Oral cavity

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head neck ii throat pharynx
HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx
  • Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat
  • Nasal Cavity and Breathing
  • Mouth and Chewing
  • Throat and Swallowing
  • Larynx and Singing

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

sagittal section head
Sagittal Section Head
  • Cranial cavity
  • Brain/Spinal cord
  • Vertebral bodies
  • Epaxial muscles
  • Hard/soft palate
  • Oral cavity
  • Esophagus
  • Trachea
  • Epiglottis
  • Naso-
  • Oro-
  • Laringo-

pharynx

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

nose nasal cavity and breathing
Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing

Function:

  • Inlet for air to lung
  • Warm/filter air

(mucous membranes on ethmoidconchae)

  • Smell

(nerve endings on nasal membranes)

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

conchae of ethmoid bone
Conchae of Ethmoid Bone
  • Scroll-like bones
  • Covered in mucous membrane for
    • Smell
    • Filter air
    • Warm air

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

sinuses
Sinuses
  • All connected to nasal cavity
  • All lined with mucous membranes
  • Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headache
  • Maxillary
  • Ethmoid
  • Frontal
  • Sphenoid

M&M, Fig. 7.11

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

mouth oral cavity and chewing
Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing
  • FUNCTION
  • Bite and chew food
  • Form words
  • Taste
  • Kiss

COMPONENTS

  • Lips
  • Cheeks
  • Palate
  • Jaws and teeth
  • Salivary glands

Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin)

Vestibule—in front of teeth

Oral cavity proper—behind teeth

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

slide7
Lips

FUNCTION

  • Close mouth
  • Keep food in
  • Make speech sounds
  • Tactile

STRUCTURE

  • Core of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris)
  • “Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosa
    • Red because clear color lets underlying vessels show through
    • No sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm)

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

cheeks
Cheeks

FUNCTION

  • Form side of moth

STRUCTURE

  • Buccinator muscle—instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

palate
Palate
  • Hard palate anterior
    • Maxilla
    • Palatine
  • Soft palate is posterior extension, soft tissue
  • Palatoglossal arch

(palate to tongue)

  • Palatopharyngeal arch

(palate to pharynx)

  • Tonsils between arches
  • Uvula…???

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

slide10
Jaws

FUNCTION

  • Hold teeth
  • Occlude in chewing
  • STRUCTURE
  • Upper jaw—maxillary bone
  • Lower jaw--mandible

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

teeth
Teeth
  • Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teeth
  • Emerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs.
  • Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs.
  • Wisdom teeth (3rd molar) erupts 17-25 yrs or remains in jaw
  • Key to healthy teeth and gums:
  • Flossing
  • Visiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.)

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

structure of individual tooth it s alive
Structure of individual tooth—it’s alive!!

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

jaw muscles
Jaw muscles
  • Masseter, temporalis—elevate mandible (“close jaw”)
  • Medial pterygoid—lateral (side-to-side) chewing
  • Lateral pterygoid—translates mandible anteriorly (part of opening)
  • Digastric (not shown)—depresses mandible (“opens jaw”)
  • Chewing is circular motion

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

tongue
Tongue

FUNCTION

  • Position food between teeth
  • Form words in speech

STRUCTURE

  • Intrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions)
  • Extrinsic muscles—attach tongue to skeleton
    • Genioglossus
    • Hyoglossus

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

salivary glands
Salivary glands
  • Intrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheek
  • Extrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating)
    • Parotid
    • Submandibular
    • Sublingual

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

saliva
Saliva
  • Moistens mouth
  • Dissolves food to be tasted
  • Wets and binds food
  • Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment)
  • Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria
  • Contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro-organisms
  • Contains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

throat pharynx and swallowing

Air

Food

PHARYNX

Trachea

Esophagus

Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing
  • Back of mouth to larynx
  • Food and air mix and cross
  • STRUCTURES
  • Entry—pharyngeal arches
  • Exit—glottis (epiglottis is lid)
  • Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food through
  • When it goes wrong—choking!!

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

pharynx and swallowing
Pharynx and Swallowing

Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea

Pharynx/Swallowing in detail!!

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

descent of the larynx
Descent of the larynx

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

larynx and singing
Larynx and Singing

FUNCTION

  • Channel air out of trachea
  • Vibrate to produce sound for speech/song

STRUCTURES

  • External skeleton or frame (cartilage)
  • Internal vocal cords and associated muscles

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

skeleton of larynx
Skeleton of larynx
  • Cricothyroid ligament is usual site of emergency tracheotomy (feel on self—SURFACE ANATOMY)

M&M, Fig. 21.5

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

vocal cords
Vocal cords

M&M, Fig. 21.6

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx