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Anatomy and Physiology. Chapter 12. BLOOD. William Harvey- father of physiology: discovered that blood circulated through the body in 1628. Blood..a liquid “ tissue ” ???. How are Tissue Classified ?(AGAIN). Epithelial - lining or covering and glandular tissue.

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Chapter 12

William Harvey- father of physiology: discovered that blood circulated through the body in 1628.
how are tissue classified again
How are Tissue Classified ?(AGAIN)

Epithelial- lining or covering and glandular tissue.

Muscle- highly specialized to contract

Nervous- irritability and conductivity

Connective-Connects body parts; Must be living cells surrounded by a matrix. Example: Bone (cells sitting in lacunae in hardened matrix of calcium salts in Collagen fibers)

Bloodis considered to be a type of connective tissue. Even though it has a different function in comparison to other connective tissues it does have an extracellular matrix.

The matrix is the plasma and erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are suspended in the plasma.

  • The only fluid tissue in the human body
  • Classified as a connective tissue
    • Living cells = formed elements
    • Non-living matrix = plasma
    • Blood, a type of connective tissue, is a complex mixture of cells, chemicals, and fluid.
    • Blood transports substances throughout the body, and helps to maintain a stable internal environment.
    • The blood includes
      • Red blood cells – oxygen carrying cells
      • White blood cells – fights infections
      • Platelets – assist in the clotting of blood
      • Plasma – water, proteins, vitamins, cellular wastes, etc.
    • A blood hematocrit is normally 45% cells and 55% plasma.
Red Blood Cells
    • Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are biconcave disks that contain one-third oxygen-carrying hemoglobin by volume.
      • When oxygen combines with hemoglobin bright red oxyhemoglobin results.
      • Deoxygenated blood (deoxyhemoglobin) is darker.
    • Red blood cells discard their nuclei during development and so cannot reproduce or produce proteins.
    • Typical Red Blood cell counts (Approx. 5 million per drop)
      • 4,600,000 - 6,200,000 cells per mm3 for males
      • 4,500,000 - 5,100,000 cells per mm3 for females.
    • The number of red blood cells is a measure of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity.
The average life span of a red blood cell is 120 days.
  • The number of red cells is held relatively constant by the hormone erythropoietin (produced by kidneys)
control of erythrocyte production
Control of Erythrocyte Production
  • Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin)
  • Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood
  • Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels
  • Prolonged oxygen deficiency due to deoxyhemoglobin (red blood cells not binded to O2) leads to cyanosis
White Blood Cells
  • White blood cells (leukocytes) help defend the body against disease.
      • Normally a milliliter of blood contains 5,000 to 10,000 white blood cells.
  • There are five types of white cells that can be distinguished by physical features.
    • Neutrophils have fine cytoplasmic granules and a multi-lobed nucleus when red staining
      • They comprise 54-62% of leukocytes.
      • Ingest and destroy bacteria
    • Eosinophils have coarse granules that stain deep red, a bi-lobed nucleus,
      • 1-3% of circulating leukocytes.
      • Control allergic reactions by removing chemicals
Neutrophil – multi-lobed nucleus. Fine cytoplasmic granules

Eosinophil –cytoplasmic granules when red stained

3.Basophils have fewer granules that stain blue
    • Fewer than 1% of leukocytes.
    • Release heparin and histamine, which increases blood flow
    • Cause body’s response to allergens.
Monocytes are the largest blood cells, have variably shaped nuclei
    • Make up 3-9% of circulating leukocytes.
    • Can engulf and kill larger invading objects
  • Lymphocytes are long-lived, have a large, round nucleus,
    • 25-33% of circulating leukocytes.
    • Important for production of antibodies.
Monocyte – kidney, oval, or lobe shaped nucleus.

Lymphocyte – large round nucleus.

Blood Plasma
    • Plasma is the clear, straw-colored fluid portion of the blood.
    • Plasma is mostly water (90+%) but contains a variety of substances.
    • Plasma functions to transport nutrients and gases, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and maintain a favorable pH.
    • Plasma proteins fall into three groups
      • The albumins help maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood and account for 60% of the plasma proteins.
      • The globulins, comprising 36% of the plasma proteins, are designated as alpha, beta, and gamma globulins.
        • Alpha and beta globulins transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins
        • Gamma globulins are a type of antibody
      • Fibrinogen (4%) plays a primary role in blood coagulation.
Plasma also carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    • Oxygen is carried in low levels in the plasma but mostly by the red blood cells.
    • Carbon dioxide is carried in the plasma as carbonic acid.
  • Additionally, there are molecules called lipoproteins that help transport lipids throughout the bloodstream
    • Chylomicrons – transport dietary fats from small intestine
    • VLDL – transport triglycerides from liver to adipose tissue
    • LDL – Delivers cholesterol to cells (Considered to be “Bad” cholesterol.)
    • HDL – transports broken down chylomicrons to liver. (Considered to be “Good” cholesterol.)
    • Hemostasis refers to the stoppage of bleeding.
    • Following injury to a vessel, three steps occur in hemostasis:
      • Blood vessel spasm
        • Roughly cutting a blood vessel causes the muscle in its walls to contract in a reflex, or engage in vasospasm.
      • Platelet plug formation
        • Platelets stick to the exposed edges of damaged blood vessels, forming a net.
        • A platelet plug is most effective on a small vessel.
      • Blood coagulation
        • A variety of chemicals and proteins are used to form a clot
ABO Blood Group
    • This refers to the type of antigens and antibodies found in the blood stream.
    • It allows doctors to determine what type of blood to give if a transfusion is necessary.
    • The wrong blood can cause agglutination in a patient leading to death.
    • Antigens – molecules on the outer surface of the cell
    • Antibodies – molecules floating in plasma that help fight infections.
      • Type O is most common (47%) and has no antigens but both A and B antibodies
      • Type A is next (41%) and has A antigens and B antibodies.
      • Type B follows (9%) and has B antigens and A antibodies.
      • Type AB is least common (3%) and has A and B antigens and no antibodies.
Was Charlie Chaplin the father?

• In 1944 the actress Joan Barry (blood group A) sued Charlie Chaplin (blood group O) for support of her child (phenotype B).

• The blood group evidence was presented in court.

• The jury supported Joan Barry’s claim. Were they right?

The mother must be Heterozygous A (Ao)

The child must be Heterozygous B (Bo, inheriting the “o” from mother)

The child must have inherited a “B” from the father.

Charlie Chaplin was Homozygous O (oo) and therefore could not have been the father.


The Rh factor on blood refers to the positive or negative part of the blood type.
    • Rh+ blood has an extra molecule on the blood cell.
    • Rh- blood does not have this extra molecule.
  • It can lead to problems like erythroblastosis fetalis
    • Occurs when an Rh- woman and an Rh+ man conceive a child.