How did we get the bible
Download
1 / 120

How Did We Get the Bible? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 242 Views
  • Uploaded on

How Did We Get the Bible?. How We Got the Bible. Lesson One: Divine Inspiration & the Formation of the Old Testament. The Inspiration of Scripture. Bible Claims of Inspiration.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'How Did We Get the Bible?' - yale


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

How we got the bible

How We Got the Bible

Lesson One:

Divine Inspiration & the Formation of the Old Testament



How did we get the bible

Bible Claims of Inspiration

“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.”

(2 Timothy 3:16-17)


How did we get the bible

Bible Claims of Inspiration

“...No Prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.”

(2 Peter 1:20-21)


How did we get the bible

Bible Claims of Inspiration

“For this reason we also thank God without ceasing, because when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which also effectively works in you who believe.”

(1 Thessalonians 2:13)


How did we get the bible

The Nature of Inspiration

René Pache, The Inspiration and Authority of Scripture: found phrases like...

“Thus says the Lord”

“The word of the Lord came to”

3808 Times

(Chicago: Moody Press, 1969, pp. 65, 81)


How did we get the bible

The Nature of Inspiration

  • Plenary “Full” Inspiration. Lat. plenus “full.” All of Scripture is inspired.

  • Verbal Inspiration. Every word of Scripture is inspired.

  • Dynamic Inspiration. Although the the personality and environment of the writer was allowed to show through - the Holy Spirit held absolute control of the outcome.


How did we get the bible

The Nature of Inspiration

  • Plenary “Full” Inspiration. Lat. plenus “full.” All of Scripture is inspired.

  • Verbal Inspiration. Every word of Scripture is inspired.

  • Dynamic Inspiration. Although the the personality and environment of the writer was allowed to show through - the Holy Spirit held absolute control of the outcome.


How did we get the bible

The Nature of Inspiration

  • Plenary “Full” Inspiration. Lat. plenus “full.” All of Scripture is inspired.

  • Verbal Inspiration. Every word of Scripture is inspired.

  • Dynamic Inspiration. Although the the personality and environment of the writer was allowed to show through - the Holy Spirit held absolute control of the outcome.



The language of the bible

  • Hebrew - Most of the Old Testament.

  • Aramaic - A few passages of the Old Testament.

  • Koine “Common” Greek - The New Testament.

The Language of the Bible


The language of the bible1

  • Hebrew - Most of the Old Testament.

  • Aramaic - A few passages of the Old Testament.

  • Koine “Common” Greek - The New Testament.

The Language of the Bible


The language of the bible2

  • Hebrew - Most of the Old Testament.

  • Aramaic - A few passages of the Old Testament.

  • Koine “Common” Greek - The New Testament.

The Language of the Bible



How did we get the bible

Writing Material in Scripture

TABLETS

“The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron; with the point of a diamond it is engraved on the tablet of their heart, and on the horns of your altars,”

(Jeremiah 17:1)


How did we get the bible

Writing Material in Scripture

TABLETS

“And when He had made an end of speaking with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses two tablets of the Testimony, tablets of stone, written with the finger of God.”

(Exodus 31:18).





How did we get the bible

Writing Material in Scripture

SCROLLS

“Take a scroll of a book and write on it all the words that I have spoken to you against Israel, against Judah, and against all the nations, from the day I spoke to you, from the days of Josiah even to this day.”

(Jeremiah 36:2)


How did we get the bible

Writing Material in Scripture

SCROLLS

“Now when I looked, there was a hand stretched out to me; and behold, a scroll of a book was in it. Then He spread it before me; and there was writing on the inside and on the outside, and written on it were lamentations and mourning and woe.”

(Ezekiel 2:9)


Early writing systems

  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic symbols).

  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).

  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).

  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent sounds).

Early Writing Systems


Early writing systems1

  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic symbols).

  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).

  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).

  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent sounds).

Early Writing Systems



Early writing systems2

  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic symbols).

  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).

  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).

  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent sounds).

Early Writing Systems



Early writing systems3

  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic symbols).

  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).

  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).

  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent sounds).

Early Writing Systems


How did we get the bible

Proto-Sinaiticca. 1500 BC


How did we get the bible

Alphabetic Development

Alphabet

Allowed writing to be more accessible

Ideographs


How did we get the bible

Alphabetic Development

The First Commandment:

“You shall have no other Gods before me”

Proto-Sinaitic Alphabet


How did we get the bible

Alphabetic Development

The First Commandment:

“You shall have no other Gods before me”

1500 BC

800 AD


Ten commandments in paleo hebrew

Ten CommandmentsIn Paleo-Hebrew




How did we get the bible

Major Events for the Hebrew Text

  • The Giving of the Law of Moses (ca. 1400 BC).

  • The Recovery of the Book of Moses in the Reign of Josiah (ca. 621 BC).

  • The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the Reforms of Ezra (ca. 400 BC).


How did we get the bible

Major Events for the Hebrew Text

  • The Giving of the Law of Moses (ca. 1400 BC).

  • The Recovery of the Book of Moses in the Reign of Josiah (ca. 621 BC).

  • The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the Reforms of Ezra (ca. 400 BC).


How did we get the bible

Major Events for the Hebrew Text

  • The Giving of the Law of Moses (ca. 1400 BC).

  • The Recovery of the Book of Moses in the Reign of Josiah (ca. 621 BC).

  • The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the Reforms of Ezra (ca. 400 BC).



The giving of the law of moses

The Giving of the Law of Moses

“These are the commandments which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel on Mount Sinai”

(Leviticus 27:34)


The giving of the law of moses1

The Giving of the Law of Moses

“These are the words of the covenant which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant which He made with them in Horeb.”

(Deuteronomy 29:1).


The giving of the law of moses2

The Giving of the Law of Moses

“Remember the Law of Moses, My servant, Which I commanded him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.”

(Malachi 4:4).


The giving of the law of moses3

The Giving of the Law of Moses

“Now all the people gathered together as one man in the open square that was in front of the Water Gate…”


The giving of the law of moses4

The Giving of the Law of Moses

“…and they told Ezra the scribe to bring the Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded Israel.”

(Nehemiah 8:1)


Man says this isn t true
Man Says This Isn’t True!

Julius Wellhausen’s

Documentary Hypothesis

The Penteteuch was not given by God, or written by Moses, but was formed by man from different sources:

Source J • Source E • Source D • Source P Jehovah • Elohim • Deuteronomist • Priestly

Then compiled together from 900-400 BC.


What is the truth
What Is The Truth?

  • The Bible says it was given by God and written by Moses.


What does the bible say
What Does The Bible Say?

In the Penteteuch we find the phrases...

“The LORD spoke to Moses”

104 Times

“The LORD said to Moses”

56 Times

“The LORD commanded Moses”

28 Times


The bible says the law of moses
The Bible Says the Law of Moses...

  • Was written by Moses

    “...have you not read in the book of Moses...”

    (Mark 12:26).

    “Did not Moses give you the law...”

    (John 7:19).

  • Yet, it was given by God

    “The law was through Moses”

    (John 1:17).


What is the truth1
What Is The Truth?

  • The Bible says it was written by Moses and given by God.

  • Ancient writers believed it was written by Moses.


Manetho egyptian historian ca 240 bc

Manetho – Egyptian Historian ca. 240 BC

Speaking of Moses, says he was -

“… The man who gave them their constitution and laws”

--Quoted by Josephus

(Against Apion, Book One 26.4).


Josephus jewish historian against apion ca 80 90 ad

Josephus – Jewish Historian (Against Apion) ca. 80-90 AD

Speaking of Jewish Scriptures, says they are - “… justly believed to be Divine, and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws, and the traditions of the origins of mankind till his death”

-- Book One 8.1


What is the truth2
What Is The Truth?

  • The Bible says it was written by Moses and given by God.

  • Ancient writers believed it was written by Moses.

  • References to Elohim & Jehovah are found together.


The penteteuch uses elohim jehovah together
The Penteteuch Uses Elohim & Jehovah Together

“LORD (Jehovah) God (Elohim)” is found 47 times

(Genesis - 26; Exodus - 13; Deuteronomy - 8)

“LORD (Jehovah)” and “God (Elohim)”in the same verse are found 413 times

(Genesis - 37; Exodus - 50; Leviticus - 38; Numbers - 11; Deuteronomy - 277)


What is the truth3
What Is The Truth?

  • The Bible says it was written by Moses and given by God.

  • Ancient writers believed it was written by Moses.

  • References to Elohim & Jehovah are found together.

  • There is no evidence for this false theory!



Recovery of the book of the law1
Recovery of “The Book of the Law”

“Then Hilkiah the high priest said to Shaphan the scribe, “I have found the Book of the Law in the house of the LORD.” And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it.”

(2 Kings 22:8)


How did we get the bible

“Book of the Law”

* 19 Times in the Old Testament

(Deut. 28:61; 29:21; 30:10; 31:26; Joshua 1:8; 8:31; 34; 23:6; 24:26; 2 Kings 14:6; 22:8; 22:11; 2 Chron. 17:9; 34:14; Nehemiah 8:1; 8:3; 8:18; 9:3).

* 1 Time in the New Testament

(Galatians 3:10)


How did we get the bible

“Book of the Law”

Never “Books” of the Law


How did we get the bible

“Book of the Law”

* Hebrew Books usually were not named.

* The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the Greek translation.

* Scrolls were usually written with four lines between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba Batra13b).

* The “Book of the Law” was one scroll (or group of scrolls) of all five books.


How did we get the bible

Opening Section of Isaiah from

1QIsaa “The Isaiah Scroll”

ca. 100 BC

No Title



How did we get the bible

“Book of the Law”

* Hebrew Books usually were not named.

* The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the Greek translation.

* Scrolls were usually written with four lines between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba Batra13b).

* The “Book of the Law” was one scroll (or group of scrolls) of all five books.


How did we get the bible

“Book of the Law”

* Hebrew Books usually were not named.

* The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the Greek translation.

* Scrolls were usually written with four lines between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba Batra13b).

* The “Book of the Law” was one scroll (or group of scrolls) of all five books.


How did we get the bible

“Book of the Law”

* Hebrew Books usually were not named.

* The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the Greek translation.

* Scrolls were usually written with four lines between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba Batra 13b).

* The “Book of the Law” was one scroll (or group of scrolls) of all five books.


Recovery of the book of the law2
Recovery of “The Book of the Law”

“Now it happened, when the king heard the words of the Book of the Law, that he tore his clothes.”

(2 Kings 22:11)


How did we get the bible

The Preservation of God’s Word

“For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.”

(Matthew 5:18)


How did we get the bible

The Preservation of God’s Word

“Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.”

(Matthew 24:35)


How did we get the bible

The Preservation of God’s Word

“...All flesh is as grass, And all the glory of man as the flower of the grass. The grass withers, And its flower falls away, But the word of the LORD endures forever...”

(1 Peter 1:24-25)


How did we get the bible

The Preservation of God’s Word

“The grass withers, the flower fades, But the word of our God stands forever.”

(Isaiah 40:8)


How did we get the bible

The Preservation of God’s Word

“... Forever, O LORD, Your word is settled in heaven.”

(Psalm 119:89)


Recovery of the book of the law3
Recovery of “The Book of the Law”

Teaching & Restoration of the Law

(2 Kings 23:1-3)



Restoration of ezra
Restoration of Ezra

“...Ezra came up from Babylon; and he was a skilled scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given. The king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God

upon Him” (Ezra 7:6)


Restoration of ezra1
Restoration of Ezra

“...For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the Law of the LORD, and to do it, and to teach statutes and ordinances in Israel.”

(Ezra 7:10)


Restoration of ezra2
Restoration of Ezra

Teaching & Restoration of the Law

(Nehemiah 8:1-8)


The great assembly or great synagogue
“The Great Assembly”(or “Great Synagogue”)

Term used by the Jews for the group who restored the Law with Ezra.

“Moses received the Torah on Sinai, and handed it down to Joshua; Joshua to the elders; the elders to the prophets; and the prophets handed it down to the Men of the Great Assembly”

(Jewish Mishnah, Perke Aboth, 1)


The great assembly or great synagogue1
“The Great Assembly”(or “Great Synagogue”)

  • This period brings to an end Divine Inspiration of Scriptures in Old Testament times.

  • The Old Testament Canon is closed.

  • All other religious writing is viewed as being uninspired and of lesser value.



Books of the old testament

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 39 books

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament39 Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 39 books1

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament39 Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Books of Law


Books of the old testament 39 books2

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament39 Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Books of History


Books of the old testament 39 books3

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament39 Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Books of Poetry


Books of the old testament 39 books4

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament39 Books

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Books of Prophecy


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Torah - hr¸WT


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible1

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Nevim - .ya3yb3n%


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible2

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Ketubim - .yb3OtK5


Books of the old testament 39 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament39 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 38 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament38 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 37 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament37 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 36 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament36 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 35 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament35 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 34 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament34 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 33 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament33 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 22 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament22 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament 24 books ancient jews 22 or 24

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old Testament24 Books (Ancient Jews – 22 or 24)

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible3

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Torah - hr¸WT


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible4

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Nevim - .ya3yb3n%


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible5

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Ketubim - .yb3OtK5


Luke 24 44
Luke 24:44

“…These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law, the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.”


Books of the old testament divisions of the hebrew bible6

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Books of the Old TestamentDivisions of the Hebrew Bible

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Ketubim - .yb3OtK5


Apocryphal book of ecclesiasticus or sirach ca 190 bc

Apocryphal Book of Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach) ca. 190 BC

“Many and great things have been given to us by the LAW and the PROPHETS and by OTHERS …my grandfather, Joshua, gave himself to the reading of the LAW and the PROPHETS and OTHER books of our fathers…” Discussing translation of Hebrew, he speaks of “…the LAW itself, and the PROPHETS and the REST of the books ”-- Prologue


Philo of alexandria on the contemplative life ca 30 ad

Philo of Alexandria (On the Contemplative Life) ca. 30 AD

Speaks of a Jewish monastic sect “…studying in that place the LAWS and the sacred oracles of God enunciated by the HOLY PROPHETS and HYMNS and PSALMS… ” -- (25)


Josephus jewish historian against apion ca 80 90 ad1

Josephus – Jewish Historian (Against Apion) ca. 80-90 AD

“We have…22 books which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be Divine…5 belong to MOSES…from the death of Moses to the reign of Artaxerxes…the PROPHETS wrote down what was done in 13 books…the remaining 4 contain HYMNS to God and precepts for the conduct of life”-- Book One 8.1


The council of jamnia
The “Council” of Jamnia

  • A theoretical “council” of Jews who some claimed “closed” the Old Testament Canon around 100 AD, in the city of Jamnia after the destruction of Jerusalem.

  • There is some evidence that the books of Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon were discussed but the canon was closed and well established long before this.


Did councils determine what was in the bible
Did “Councils” Determine What was in the Bible?

  • Councils or declarations of men do not determine what is Divine, inspired or authoritative.

  • At best, they simply state what is already understood to be true.



How did we get the bible

The Old Testament in Greek

  • The Conquest of Alexander the Great brought the Greek language to much of the Ancient World.


How did we get the bible

The Old Testament in Greek

  • During the reign of Ptolemy II (ca. 285-246 BC.). The Old Testament began to be translated into Greek.

  • The Letter of Aristeas tells of Ptolemy using 72 Jewish scholars to carry out this work (Gr. Septuaginta = 70 - LXX - “The Septuagint”).


How did we get the bible

The Old Testament in Greek

  • The Septuagint (LXX) utilized the Greek custom of naming books. (e.g. Exodus = Gr. ex “out” - hodos “road, way”).


How did we get the bible

The Old Testament in Greek

  • Many of the names we use are from the LXX.

  • The arrangement we use of the books of the Old Testament (i.e. Law, History, Poetry, Prophecy) was derived from the LXX.

  • The LXX was the Old Testament of many early Christians.



How did we get the bible

Extra-Canonical Books

  • The word “canon,” meaning “rule, or measuring line,” refers to the complete collection of Divinely inspired books.

  • After the time of Ezra the canon was closed.

  • Many religious & historical works were produced during this period. These are called:

  • The Apocrypha (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).

  • The Pseudepigrapha(ca. 200 BC - 200 AD).


How did we get the bible

  • The Apocrypha (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).

  • 14 Jewish historical & religious texts (Maccabees, Tobit, Bel & the Dragon, Sirach, etc.).

  • The Jews viewed these as uninspired supplementary reading which held no authority.


How did we get the bible

The Apocrypha (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).

Josephus, Against Apion, says of other works after Ezra that they “hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets from that time”

(Bk. I, 8.1).

The Babylonian Talmud, says Zechariah and Malachi came “at the end of the prophets”

(Baba Batra, 14b).


How did we get the bible

  • The Apocrypha (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).

  • While included in many copies of the LXX this was probably considered supplementary material.

  • Jesus and New Testament writers never quote from a single Apocryphal book (although almost every canonical book is quoted).

  • These books are included in Roman Catholic Bibles and were in the original 1611 King James Bible.

  • They may have historical value but are not inspired!


How did we get the bible

  • The Pseudepigrapha(ca. 200 BC - 200 AD).

  • Fanciful texts under the pseudonym of ancient writers (Life of Adam & Eve; The Testaments of the12 Patriarchs; Enoch; Martyrdom & Ascension of Isaiah).

  • While known among the Jews, these were like modern works of religious fiction.

  • In addition to Scriptural & secular texts, the Dead Sea Scroll “library” has a number of Pseudepigraphic texts.


How did we get the bible

Old Testament Reliability

* The Old Testament Law, Prophets and Writings (Genesis - Malachi) were complete and viewed as the Inspired word of God well before the First Century.

* We can be assured that the Old Testament we read in our English Bible is the complete, accurate and wholly inspired word of God.