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Foundations of American Constitutional Government. Unit 1. Relevant Standards of Learning. CE.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of American constitutional government by

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relevant standards of learning
Relevant Standards of Learning

CE.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of American constitutional government by

a) explaining the fundamental principles of consent of the governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, and representative government

CE.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the national level by

a) describing the structure and powers of the national government

CE.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the state level by

a) describing the structure and powers of the state government

CE.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the local level by

a) describing the structure and powers of the local government;

b) explaining the relationship of local government to the state government

student objectives
Student objectives
  • List and describe five fundamental principles of American constitutional governments. (CE.2a)
  • Explain the principle of separation of powers and the operation of checks and balances. (CE.6b)
  • Explain the structure and powers of local Virginia governments(CE.8a)
  • Explain the relationship of the various levels of government in a federal system. (CE.7b, CE.8b)
limited government
Limited government

Government is NOT all powerful and may only do those things people have given it the power to do.

what are some examples of limited government
What are some examples of “limited government”?
  • Due process protections
  • Separation of powers
  • Checks and balances
  • Bill of Rights
representative government
Representative government

People elect public officeholders to make laws and conduct government on their behalf.

what are some examples of representative government
What are some examples of “representative government”?
  • President
  • Congress
  • Governor
  • Virginia General Assembly
  • School Boards
consent of the governed
Consent of the governed

People are the source of any and all government power. They give their permission to be governed.

what are some examples of consent of the governed
What are some examples of “consent of the governed”?
  • Petitioning
  • Holding elective office
  • Obeying laws
rule of law
Rule of law

The government and those who govern are bound by the law, as are the people.

what are some examples of rule of law
What are some examples of“rule of law”?
  • Impeachment
  • Arrest of a public official
  • Special investigators
democracy
Democracy

In a democratic form of government, the people rule.

what are some examples of democracy
What are some examples of“democracy”?
  • Elections
  • Petitioning
  • Holding elective office
  • Campaigning
  • Expressing opinions
separation of powers
Separation of Powers

The various functions of government (to make laws, to enforce laws, and to interpret laws) are conducted by three separate but co-equal branches

checks and balances
Checks and Balances

Each of the three branches of government has powers over the other two branches so that no one branch can be too powerful

local legislative
Local Legislative

Board of Supervisors

Town or City Council

Makes laws for the locality

state legislative
State Legislative

Virginia General Assembly

Makes laws for the commonwealth of Virginia

national legislative
National Legislative

U. S. Congress

Makes laws for the United States

local executive
Local Executive

Mayor

Enforces local laws

state executive
State Executive

Governor

Enforces laws of Virginia

Prepares state budget

national executive
National Executive

President

Enforces U. S. laws

Prepares U. S. budget

local judicial
Local Judicial

State Courts

Hear cases involving local issues

state judicial
State Judicial

State Courts

Hear cases involving state matters

Interpret the Virginia Constitution

national judicial
National Judicial

Federal Courts

Hear cases involving U. S. laws

Interprets the U. S. Constitution

legislative branch s power over
Legislative branch’s power over:

Executive

Override veto, impeachment

Judicial

approve judicial appointments, impeachment

executive branch s power over
Executive branch’s power over:

Legislative

veto, special session

Judicial

appoints judges

judicial branch s power over
Judicial branch’s power over:

Legislative

judicial review – declare acts of Congress unconstitutional

Executive

judicial review – declare executive actions to be unconstitutional

what is federalism
What is “federalism”?

A system of government in which power is shared between the local, state, and national levels of government

powers of national government
Powers of national government

Expressed

Implied

Description: Powers directly granted by the Constitution, or needed to carry out expressed powers

list some examples of expressed and implied powers
List some examples of expressed and implied powers.
  • Maintain an army/navy (exp)
  • Declare war (exp)
  • Form a national bank (imp)
  • Federal Aviation Administration (imp)
powers of state and national
Powers of state and national

Concurrent

Description: Powers that are held by both national and state governments at the same time

list some examples of concurrent powers
List some examples of concurrent powers
  • Establish courts
  • Collect taxes
  • Establish courts
powers of state government
Powers of state government

Reserved

Description – The 10th Amendment grants rights not given or implied by the Constitution to the states

list some examples of reserved powers
List some examples of reserved powers
  • Establish schools
  • Conduct elections
  • Regulate marriages
what are the primary responsibilities of government at the state and national levels
What are the primary responsibilities of government at the state and national levels?

National – conduct foreign policy, regulate commerce, and provide common defense

State – promote public health, safety, and welfare

where does local government authority and powers come from
Where does local government authority and powers come from?

The Virginia constitution and acts of the General Assembly

slide42
List four government official that the Virginia constitution requires to be elected in each local jurisdiction.
  • Sheriff
  • Clerk of the court
  • Commissioner of revenue
  • Treasurer
what is a charter
What is a “charter”?

A charter defines the powers that a city has as granted by the General Assembly.

what are the powers of local virginia governments
What are the powers of local Virginia governments?
  • Enforce state and local laws
  • Public health and safety]
  • Levy and collect taxes
  • Protect the environment
  • Regulate land use
  • Public education
complete the following statement
Complete the following statement

“…governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the __________.”

slide48
Once a year, Marion Middle School holds an election for student coucil. This is an example of what principle of government?

Representative government

slide49
A local police chief is arrested for embezzling money from the police department. This is an example of which principle of government?

Rule of law

what name is given to the following level and branch of government
What name is given to the following level and branch of government?
  • National Legislative

Congress

  • State Executive

Governor

  • Local Executive

Mayor

  • State Judicial

Virginia courts

in virginia who regulates land use protects the environment and provides public education
In Virginia, who regulates land use, protects the environment, and provides public education?

Local government

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