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Project X Linac. Giorgio Apollinari Fermilab Accelerator Advisory Committee August 8 th - 10 th , 2007. Outline. Introduction Description of Project X Linac Beam Line Components and Considerations RF Power, Civil and Cryogenics Considerations Conclusions. Introduction.

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Project x linac l.jpg

Project X Linac

Giorgio Apollinari

Fermilab Accelerator Advisory Committee

August 8th - 10th , 2007


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Description of Project X Linac

    • Beam Line Components and Considerations

    • RF Power, Civil and Cryogenics Considerations

  • Conclusions


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • An 8 GeV Linac coupled with an upgraded FNAL facilities is required to get above 2 MW at 120 GeV (MI)

  • The 8 GeV Linac idea* incorporates concepts from the ILC, the Spallation Neutron Source and RIA.

    • Copy SNS, RIA, and JPARC Linac design up to 1.3 GeV

    • Use ILC-like Cryomodules (b=1 cav.) from 1.3 -8 GeV

    • H- Injection at 8 GeV in Main Injector

      * The 8 GeV Linac concept actually originated with Vinod Bharadwaj and Bob Noble in 1994,when it was realized that the MI would benefit from a Linac injector. Gradients of 4-5 Mev/m did not make the proposal cost effective at the time. Idea revived and expanded by GWF in 2004 with the advent of 20-25 MeV/m gradients.


Slide4 l.jpg

Modulator

HINS R&D Program

(Webber’s talk)

Elliptical Option

β=.47

β=.47

β=.61

β=.61

β=.61

β=.61

or… 325 MHz Spoke Resonators

“PULSED RIA”

Front End Linac

325 MHz

0-110 MeV

0.5 MW Initial

8 GeV Linac

Single

3 MW

JPARC

Klystron

Modulator

Multi-Cavity Fanout at 10 - 50 kW/cavity

Phase and Amplitude Control w/ Ferrite Tuners

11 Klystrons (2 types)

449 Cavities

51 Cryomodules

H-

RFQ

MEBT

RTSR

SSR

DSR

DSR

β<1 ILC LINAC

10 MW

ILC

Multi-Beam

Klystrons

Modulator

1300 MHz0.1-1.2 GeV

48 Cavites / Klystron

2 Klystrons

96 Elliptical Cavities

12 Cryomodules

β=.81

β=.81

β=.81

β=.81

β=.81

β=.81

8 Cavites / Cryomodule

8 Klystrons

288 Cavities in 36 Cryomodules

ILC LINAC

1300 MHz β=1

Modulator

Modulator

Modulator

Modulator

10 MW

ILC

Klystrons

36 Cavites / Klystron

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

Modulator

Modulator

Modulator

Modulator

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1

β=1


Toward an ilc project x alignment reference design l.jpg
Toward an ILC-Project X Alignment:“Reference” Design

  • FY06 start of HINS (High Intensity Neutrino Source) R&D Program with availability of Neutrino Initiative funds

    • Establishment of collaborations

    • Beam dynamic studies in realistic conditions (misalignments, beam correctors, etc.)

    • Address major R&D Issues

  • Started full alignment of b=1 section with ILC technology

    • Based on concept of ILC RF Unit:

      • 9 cavities – 8 cavities/1 quad – 9 cavities

    • “Reference” Linac design with 8 ILC RF-Units


Slide6 l.jpg

Project X: “Reference” design

  • Emphasis on number of ILC RF units:

    • 8 ILC units with 208 ILC-identical cavities and 24 ILC-identical cryomodules

    • In addition

      • ILC-1 section with 63 ILC-identical cavities and 9 ILC-like cryomodules

      • S-ILC section with 56 ILC-like cavities and 7 ILC-like cryomodules

  • Compromise on accelerating fields in ILC cavities and presence of S-ILC:

    • 167 ILC-identical cavities operating at 31.5 MeV/m

    • 104 ILC-like cavities operating at 18.3 MeV/m



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Project X: “8p/9” Design

  • ILC Preliminary RDR release in February ’07

    • …..

    • FNAL Steering Group for accelerator-based HEP program

    • Project X proposal (July 07):

      • 8 GeV Linac as “ILC-identical” as possible.

        • Same beam parameters

          • 9mA with 1 ms long pulse at a rate of 5 HZ

        • Same configuration

          • ILC cryomodules for b = 1

          • RF distribution and cryogenic distribution for b=1, etc.


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Project X: “8p/9” Design

  • Basic tenets:

    • Use ILC RF units for high energy (b>0.9) Linac

    • Use ILC cavities (and slightly-modified ILC cryomodules) operated in 8p/9 mode (P. Ostroumov – ANL) at intermediate energies

    • All cavities operated at ILC parameters

      • 31.5 MeV/m, 9 mA, 1 ms, etc.

    • Frequency transition (325 MHz to 1300 MHz) at 600 MeV

  • At 1.3 GHz, all cavities have b=1 ILC design operating at 31.5 MeV/m.


Tables and pictures worth 1000 s words l.jpg

All b=1 cavities

at 31.5 MeV/m

No S-ILC

Section

TSR extends to higher

(600 MeV) Energy

Unchanged from

“reference” design

Tables and pictures worth 1000’s words


Tables and pictures worth 1000 s words11 l.jpg

  • ILC- 8/9: 6 cryomodules, 42 cavities, 12 quads 0.6 – 1.0 GeV

  • ILC-1 : 9 cryomodules, 63 cavities, 18 quads 1.0 – 2.4 GeV

Tables and pictures worth 1000’s words

  • ILC-2: 12 cryomodules, 96 cavities, 12 quads 2.4 – 5.2 GeV

+

+

  • ILC : 12 cryomodules, 104 cavities, 4 quads 5.2 – 8.0 GeV

“ILC-identical” Cavities/Cryomodules: 305/24

“ILC-like” Cavities/Cryomodules: N.A./15



Why 8 p 9 l.jpg
Why 8p/9 ?

  • Transit Time Factor

  • Analytical Field Distribution

  • TRACK Beam Dynam.

  • 3D ILC Cavity Simulation


Is 8 p 9 possible for ilc cavities l.jpg
Is 8p/9possible for ILC Cavities ?

  • TESLA 1998-20

  • Outstanding feature: 8p/9 mode is only 0.8 MHz away from fundamental p mode

    • Tuning Issue: once ILC cavity is produce, “stretch” it to tune p mode to 1.3008 GHz

    • In ILC, +/-300 kHz tuning range

  • 8p/9 mode is not within the expected nominal ILC tuning range but should be achievable


Project x linac design l.jpg

Frequency 325 MHz

Total length ~ 55 m

Limited by Meson Building

RFQ

MEBT

RT -CHSR

SSR1

(b=0.22)

SSR2

(b=0.4)

IS

2.5

0.050

10

90

W (MeV)

30

Project X Linac Design

  • We propose at least two designs exploiting alignment between Project X and ILC

    • The “Reference” design emphasizes the number of ILC-RF units

      • 1.3 GHz from 0.4 GeV to 8 GeV

      • S-ILC Cavities

      • Operates 40% of ILC-Cavities at 18 MeV/m

    • The “8p/9” design emphasizes the number of ILC Cavities operated at 31.5 MeV/m

      • 1.3 GHz from 0.6 GeV to 8 GeV

      • Only b=1 ILC-identical cavities (305) operated at 31.5 MeV/m

  • Linac Front-End (Webber’s talk)


Rf power considerations and distribution l.jpg
RF Power Considerations and Distribution

  • 325 MHz Power

    • Will need five 325 MHz, 2.5 MW klystrons for the 0-600 MeV Linac

    • Low b, beam phase and possible cavities field variations will require use of IQM modulators

      • 40 kW ~ 120 kW

      • Phase: +/- 45 degree, Amplitude: +/- 1.5 db

      • 1 degree/1msec

  • 1300 MHz Power

    • Planning on ILC Modulator and 10 MW ILC klystron

    • Longitudinal dynamics of the non-relativistic H- beam and possible cavities field variations over time (SNS experience) will require use of IQM modulators throughout the Linac with the exception of the final four ILC 9-8-9 RF units

      • Need of additional RF simulation/experience on cavities field uniformity to prove the ability to control the RF distribution through LLRF under beam-loading conditions in the in the HE part of the Linac.


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Cryogenic Considerations

  • Cryogenic system temperature and pressure levels determined by choice of ILC-style cryomodules

    • ILC section cold mass operates at 2K

    • 325 MHz Front End cooled by 2-phase He at 4.5 K

  • 8 GeV Linac cryogenic system will be similar, in scale, to the Spallation Neutron Source system.

  • Challenges (face by ILC as well):

    • Liquid level control in long strings

    • Uncertainty in heat load estimates

    • Optimization of capital vs. operating costs

    • Protection from over-pressurization due to abnormal operating conditions

    • Compliance with engineering standards


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Civil Site Considerations

  • Considerable efforts placed on the investigation of site location at the time of the Proton Driver proposal (several constraints on injection into MR or Recycler)

  • No additional evidence suggesting a more suitable location than inside the southern half of the Tevatron Ring

  • Site characterized professionally

    • Wet land impact (120-160 acres)


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Project X Linac at FNAL

  • SCRF Facilities available at FNAL

    • Cold String assembly line (MP9)

    • Cryomodule Assembly Facility (ICB)

    • BCP/EP at ANL/FNAL and VTS @ FNAL

    • Project X in line with other ILC activities at FNAL

  • Project X will contribute to the industrialization of ILC components and SCRF technology:

    • ~300 ILC cavities and ~100 Spoke Resonators

      • Cavities Companies: AES (ILC), Roark (ILC, HINS)

    • ~40 ILC cryomodules and ~50 ILC quadrupoles

      • PHPK (HTS), Meyer Tools (LHC cryomodules and ANL SSR),…

    • ~400 Power Couplers:

      • CPI (XFEL-Desy), Ability Engineering (HINS SSR PCs)


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Conclusions

  • The Project X Linac has been designed to have a very large “commonality” with the ILC project.

    • (At least) Two designs with large number of features overlapping the ILC

  • Major R&D issues are being addressed in a separate HINS R&D program or are common with standard ILC issues (cavities gradient, MBK klys, etc).

  • Future work will include (in addition to HINS R&D):

    • Demonstration of 8p/9 mode operations for ILC cavities

    • Transient beam dynamics analysis with realistic RF distribution and feedback

    • Definition and analysis of potential upgrades not excluded by the design

  • The scale of the US regional industrialization effort for the ILC is at the same level of the number of cryomodules needed for the Project X Linac