Introduction to Art. Week 7 Rococo Academicism Neo-Classicism The 19 th Century Romanticism Iris Tuan April 12 th , 2010. Rococo. A highly ornate, decorative style of art in France during the reign of Louis XV
Introduction to Art Week 7 Rococo Academicism Neo-Classicism The 19th Century Romanticism Iris Tuan April 12th, 2010
Rococo A highly ornate, decorative style of art in France during the reign of Louis XV Rococo art favoured the complex, swirling forms of Baroque art but was airier and more graceful, preferring pleasurable, oftne voyeuristic, subject matter
Rococo Associated with Louis XV’s mistress Madame de Pompadour Synonymous with feminized, corrupt, incompetent government and facile, erotic titillation Allowed art to abandon high seriousness in favor of eroticism, decoration and pleasure
The pilgrimage to Cythera Watteau’s scene evokes a world of pleasure and beauty
Bathers, Jean-Honore Fragonard Fragonard’s bathers is typical of Rococo’s light-heartedness.
The Death of Hyacinth Artist: Giovanni Battista Tiepolo Date of Completion: 1752 Description: Hyacinth is a divine hero from Greek mythology. In the literary myth, Hyacinth was a beautiful young man admired by the god Apollo. Apollo and Hyacinth took turns throwing the dicus. Hyacinth ran to catch it to impress Apollo, was struck by the discus and died.
The Happy Accidents of the Swing Artist: Jean Honore Fragonard Date of Completion: 1768 Description: The painting depicts a young man hidden in the bushes, watching a woman on a swing, being pushed by a bishop. As the lady goes high on the swing, she lets him take a furtive peep under her dress. As a symbol of the loss of virginity, the lady has let one of her shoes fly into the air.
Rococo Architecture Artist: Jean Honore Fragonard Location: Bavarian Allgau, Germany Description: The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren: architectural spaces flow together and swarm with life.
Rococo Architecture Artist: Manuel Caetano de Sousa Location: Bavarian Allgau, Germany Description: The Rococo library at the Mafra National Palace, Portugal. The library situated at the back of the second floor is the highlight of the palace. The wooden bookshelves in Rococo style are situated on the sidewalls in two rows, separated by a balcony with a wooden railing.
Diane Sortant du Bain Artist: Francois Boucher Date: 1742
La Raie Artist: Jean Simeon Chardin Date: 1725
Marie Madeleine Guimard Description: Marie-Madeleine Guimard (27 December 1743, Paris — 4 May 1816) was a French ballerina who dominated the Parisian stage during the reign of Louis XVI. For twenty-five years she was the star of the Paris Opera. She made herself even more famous by her love affairs, especially by her long liaison with the prince de Soubise. According to Edmond de Goncourt, when d'Alembert was asked why dancers like La Guimard made such prodigious fortunes, when singers did not, he responded, "It is a necessary consequence of the laws of motion" Artist: Jean Honore Fragonard Date: 1769 Source: http://wikipedia.org
Hercule et Omphale Description: In Greek mythology, Omphale (Ancient Greek: Ὀμφάλη) was a daughter of Iardanus, either a king of Lydia, or a river-god. Omphale was queen of the kingdom of Lydia in Asia Minor; according to Bibliotheke she was the wife of Tmolus, the oak-clad mountain king of Lydia; after he was gored to death by a bull, she continued to reign on her own. Diodorus Siculus provides the first appearance of the Omphale theme in literature, though Aeschylus was aware of the episode. The Greeks did not recognize her as a goddess: the undisputed etymological connection with omphalos, the world-navel, has never been made clear Artist: Francois Lemoyne Date: 1724 Source: http://wikipedia.org
Caron Passant Les Ombres Artist: Pierre Subleyras Date: 1735
Academicism The codification of art into rules which can be taught in Academies Poussin was the artist whose work and theories played the greatest role in first shaping Academicism He emphasized subject, concept, structure and style
Academicism Carefully arranged for coherence and fluidity The eye travels through the painting in a way which is appropriate to its subject and concept Romanticism challenged the dominant Academic precept that art can be taught systematically
Whistlejacket, 1762 GEORGE STUBBS • AN EXAMPLE OF THE METICULOUS ATTENTION TO THE FIGURE WHICH CHARACTERISES Academic painting • Have a sound knowledge of anatomy
Colonel Tarleton, 1782, JOSHUA REYNOLDS • Reynolds was one of the advocates of the ‘grand manner’ in painting • The portrait displays Colonel Tarleton’s military virtues and his personal triumph over everything base in human nature
Rape of Sabine Women Artist: Nicolas Poussin Description: The Rape of the Sabine Women is an episode in the legendary history of Rome in which the first generation of Roman men acquired wives for themselves from the neighboring Sabine families
The Birth of Venus Description It depicts the goddess Venus, having emerged from the sea as a full grown woman, arriving at the sea-shore (which is related to the Venus Anadyomenemotif). The painting is held in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence Artist: Alexandre Cabanel Date of Completion:1863 About Author: Cabanel was a French painter and entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris at age of 17. A successful academic painter, his painting “Birth of Venus” is one of the best known example in 19th century Academic Paininting.
Life Class at the Royal Danish Academy Description: This painting is an illustration depicting the contemporary Royal Danish Academy. Artist: William Bendz Description: Life class at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1826
Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners Artist: Alexandre Cabanel Date of Completion: 1887
Young Woman Reading by a Window Artist: Delphine Enjolras Description: Delphine Enjolras was a French academic painter. Enjolras painted portraits, nudes, interiors. He is best known for his intimate portraits of young women performing mundane activities such as reading or sewing, often illuminated by lamplight.
The Artist with his Wife and Daughter Artist: Thomas Gainsborough Date: 1748
The Morning Walk Description: The Morning Walk' by Thomas Gainsborough shows an elegant young couple strolling through a woodland landscape, an attentive dog at the lady's heel. William Hallett and Elizabeth Stephen were both aged 21 and due to be married in the summer of 1785, shortly after the painting was completed. Portraits of wealthy sitters posed in a natural setting and dressed in their finest (but not necessarily most practical) clothes were a popular status symbol. William is in a black, silk velvet frock-suit. His apparent carelessness is actually a studied pose. The undone jacket and with one hand tucked into it is a stance seen in many fashionable 18th-centry informal portraits (known as conversation pieces). 'John Plampin', also by Gainsborough does the same. Elizabeth is in a dress of ivory silk - perhaps her wedding dress - caught at the waist with a black silk band. A frilled muslin kerchief covers her breast, with a knot of grape-green ribbon under it. The light, feathery brushstrokes used to describe the landscape are typical of Gainsborough's late style. William's hair and Elizabeth's gauzy shawl almost blend into the landscape they walk through. Artist: Thomas Gainsborough Date: 1785 Source: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/
Lord Heathfield of Gibraltar Description: In 1775 George Augustus Eliott, Lord Heathfield (1717 - 1790), was appointed Governor of Gibraltar. During the siege of 1779-83 he held the British fortress against Spanish attack, and was made Baron Heathfield in 1787. He is shown at Gibraltar during the siege, symbolically holding the key to the fortress, with a view to the peninsula in the background; a cannon points steeply down towards the sea and the sky is darkened by smoke. He is wearing what is presumably the ribbon and star of the Order of the Bath. Lord Heathfield sat for this painting in August and September 1787. The portrait was commissioned by the print publisher John Boydell who paid for it in October of that year. Artist: Joshua Reynolds Date: 1787 Source: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/
Madam De Pompadour Description: Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), was a member of the French court, and was the official maîtresse-en-titre of Louis XV from 1745 to 1750. Source: http://wikipedia.org
Madam Dubarry Description: Jeanne Bécu, comtesse du Barry (19 August 1743 – 8 December 1793) was the last Maîtresse-en-titre of Louis XV of France and one of the victims of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. Source: http://wikipedia.org
Neo-Classicism The dominant artistic and intellectual movement in European art in the 18th and early 19th centuries A rejection of the Rococo Interest in the Classical past Moral seriousness Connections with Academicism
Neo-Classicism Neo-Classical art claimed an important role for itself as a shaper of morals and behaviour Use art to create a society which was both modern and virtuous David is the most significant painter
The oath of the Horatii, 1785, JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID This painting is considered the manifesto of Neo-Classicism
Roman Ruins and sculpture Artist: Giovanni Paolo Pannini Date of Completion: 1758 Description: Late Baroque Classicizing Pannini assembles the canon of Romain ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery Contrast to Baroque and Rococo, Neo classical paintings are devoid of pastel colors and haziness instead, they have sharp colors with Chiaroscuro. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoclassicism
Psyche Revived by Love’s Kiss Artist: Antonio Canova Date of Completion: 1758 Description: There is an anti-Rococo strain that can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland, but also recognizable in a classicizing vein of architecture in Berlin. It is a robust architecture of self-restraint, academically selective now of "the best" Roman models. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoclassicism
The Love of Paris and Helen Description: Paris (Greek: Πάρις; also known as Alexander or Alexandros, c.f. Alaksandu of Wilusa), the son of Priam, king of Troy, appears in a number of Greek legends. Probably the best-known was his elopement with Helen, queen of Sparta, this being one of the immediate causes of the Trojan War. Later in the war, he fatally wounds Achilles in the heel with an arrow, as foretold by Achilles's mother, Thetis. Artist: Jacques Louis David Date: 1789
Madame Recamier Description: Jeanne-Françoise Julie Adélaïde Bernard Récamier (4 December 1777 - 11 May 1849) was a Frenchwoman who was a leader of the literary and political circles of the early 19th century. Artist: Jacques Louis David Date: 1800 Source: http://wikipedia.org
Cupid and Psyche Description:The legend of Cupid and Psyche (also known as The Tale of Amour and Psyche and The Tale of Eros and Psyche) first appeared as a digressionary story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius' novel, The Golden Ass, written in the 2nd century AD. Apuleius likely used an earlier tale as the basis for his story, modifying it to suit the thematic needs of his novel. It has since been interpreted as a Märchen, an allegory and a myth. Considered as a fairy tale, it is either an allegory or a myth, but the folkloric tradition tends to blend these. Artist: Baron Fancois Gerard Date: 1798 Source: http://wikipedia.org
The Apotheosis of Homer Description: The Apotheosis of Homer is a grand 1827 painting by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, now exhibited at the Louvre as INV 5417. Artist: Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Date: 1827 Source: http://wikipedia.org
The 19th Century Rejected the authority of Art Academies France played a central role Opens with the dominance of Neo-Classicism Moral high seriousness & political purposefulness Challenged by Romanticism
The Birth of Venus Description: It depicts the goddess Venus, having emerged from the sea as a full grown woman, arriving at the sea-shore (which is related to the Venus Anadyomene Artist: William Bouguereau Date: 1879 Source: http://wikipedia.org
Woman with Coffee Pot Description: The vagueness of the dating of The Woman With a Coffee Pot is typical, since Cezanne never dated his paintings. It as been placed, however, in his so-called ‘classical’ period, described by one of his biographers as his “Age of Style”, which evolved after his romantic and Impressionist phases. Like other paintings of this period, it is richly colored and solid; the stern-faced woman ‘is planted like a strong tower’, as art historian Lionello Venturi described her. Artist: Paul Cezanne Date: 1890-1895 Source: http://www.impressionist-art-gallery.com/
Self Portrait Description: Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter whose work had a far-reaching influence on 20th century art for its vivid colors and emotional impact. He suffered from anxiety and increasingly frequent bouts of mental illness throughout his life, and died largely unknown, at the age of 37, from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. Artist: Vincent Van Gogh Date: 1889 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/
The Angelus Description:The Angelus (Latin for Angel) is a Christian devotion in memory of the Incarnation. The name Angelus is derived from the opening words: Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ and is practised by reciting as versicle and response three Biblical verses describing the mystery; alternating with the salutation "Hail Mary!" The Angelus exemplifies a species of prayers called the prayer of the devotee. Artist: Jean Francois Millet Date: 1857
Romanticism & Realism Romanticism--Emphasized the emotional, the irrational, the mystical, the intuitive and the symbolic Over and above the completely rational and rule-bound Realism—broadens the subject matter of art to include images of everyday life
Liberty Lead the People Description: Liberty Leading the People (French: La Liberté guidant le peuple) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a bayonetted musket with the other. This is perhaps Delacroix's best-known painting, having carved its own niche in popular culture. Artist: Eugene Delacroix Date: 1830
Lady Macbeth Description: Lady Macbeth is a character in Shakespeare's Macbeth (c.1603-1607). She is the wife to the play's antagonist, Macbeth, a Scottish nobleman. After goading him into committing regicide, she becomes Queen of Scotland, and later suffers pangs of guilt for her part in the crime. She dies off-stage in the last act, an apparent suicide. Artist: Henry Fuseli Date: 1784
Portrait of a Compulsive Gambler Artist: Theodore Gericault Date: 1822
The Raft of the Medusa Description:The Raft of the Medusa (French: Le Radeau de la Méduse) is an oil painting of 1818–1819 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault (1791–1824). Completed when the artist was just 27, the work has become an icon of French Romanticism. At 491 cm × 716 cm (193.3 in × 282.3 in), it is an over-life-size painting that depicts a moment from the aftermath of the wreck of the French naval frigate Méduse, which ran aground off the coast of today's Mauritania on July 5, 1816. At least 147 people were set adrift on a hurriedly constructed raft; all but 15 died in the 13 days before their rescue, and those who survived endured starvation, dehydration, cannibalism and madness. The event became an international scandal, in part because its cause was widely attributed to the incompetence of the French captain acting under the authority of the recently restored French monarchy. Artist: Theodore Gericault Date: 1819
The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken up Description: The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken up is an oil painting executed in 1838 by the English artist J. M. W. Turner (c.1775–1851). It depicts one of the last second-rate ships of the line which played a distinguished role in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, the 98-gun ship HMS Temeraire, being towed towards its final berth in East London in 1838 to be broken up for scrap. The painting hangs in the National Gallery, London, having been bequeathed to the nation by the artist in 1851. Artist: J.M.W Turner Date: 1838
Related Video • Neo Classicism In Vaticano • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5EmYpNl0FUo • Rococo Faces • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gVBqTeZNdcs • Art History Genres: What is Rococo Art • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3a9sO5_Ouk • Romanticism Art • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWTPDnG0i20 • Romanticism: Literature and Art • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkdgCSR6DYs&feature=related