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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART. By DR. M. VEGO JMO DEPARTMENT, U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, RI. “ WAR IS NOT AN AFFAIR OF CHANCE. A GREAT DEAL OF KNOWLEDGE, STUDY AND MEDITATION IS NECESSARY TO CONDUCT IT WELL.” FREDERICK THE GREAT, 1747. TERMS USED. GRAND TACTICS

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INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART


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    1. INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL ART By DR. M. VEGO JMO DEPARTMENT, U.S. NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, RI.

    2. “WAR IS NOT AN AFFAIR OF CHANCE. A GREAT DEAL OF KNOWLEDGE, STUDY AND MEDITATION IS NECESSARY TO CONDUCT IT WELL.” FREDERICK THE GREAT, 1747

    3. TERMS USED • GRAND TACTICS • OPERATIONS (OPERATIONS) • OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONSKUNST) • OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIVNOYE ISKUSSTVO) • OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP (OPERATIONSFUEHRUNG; OPERATIVE FUEHRUNG) • OPERATIONAL WARFARE • OPERATIONAL WARFIGHTING

    4. HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART STRATEGY OPERATIONS (Operational Art) TACTICS PPT-98-VEG0-38A (PFR)

    5. ON OPERATIONAL ART • AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS • IT IS APPLIED ACROSS THE ENTIRE “OPERATIONAL CONTINUUM” • IT DEALS WITH THEORY AND PRACTICE OF PLANNING, PREPARING, CONDUCTING, AND SUSTAINING MAJOR OPERATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS AIMED AT ACCOMPLISHING OPERATIONAL OR STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER.

    6. “THE NATION THAT WILL INSIST ON DRAWING A BROAD LINE BETWEEN THE FIGHTING MAN AND THE THINKING MAN IS LIABLE TO FIND ITS FIGHTING DONE BY FOOLS AND ITS THINKING DONE BY COWARDS.” SIR WILLIAM FRANCIS BUTLER

    7. MILITARY SCIENCE AND MILITARY ART MILITARY SCIENCE STRATEGY TACTICS MILITARY ART OPERATIONS (OPERATIONAL ART) PPT-98-VEG0-10A (PFR)

    8. IMPORTANCE • TACTICS ALONE CANNOT ACCOMPLISH STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER OR WIN THE WAR; RESULTS OF TACTICAL ACTIONS ARE USEFUL ONLY WHEN LINKED TOGETHER AS A PART OF SOME LARGER DESIGN FRAMED BY STRATEGY AND ORCEHSTRATED BY OPERATIONAL ART • THE GAP BETWEEN STRATEGY AND TACTICS IS TOO LARGE TO BE BRIDGED WITHOUT AN INTERMEDIATE FIELD OF STUDY AND PRACTICE -- OPERATIONAL ART

    9. OPERATIONAL ART SEQUENCES AND SYNCHRONIZES SERIES OF TACTICAL ACTIONS TO ACCOMPLISH OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF MAJOR OPERATIONS; STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES IN A THEATER ARE NORMALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH SERIES OF MAJOR OPERATIONS • OPERATIONAL ART ALLOWS A SMALLER, BUT BETTER TRAINED AND SKILLFULLY LED FORCE GUIDED BY SOUND STRATEGY TO DEFEAT QUICKLY AND DECISIVELY A MUCH STRONGER FORCE.

    10. OPERATIONAL ART HELPS TO AVOID MORE COSTLY AND TIME-CONSUMING ATTRITIONAL WARFARE AT THE OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC LEVELS • IT PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK AND KEY INPUTS FOR WRITING SERVICE AND JOINT/COMBINED DOCTRINE • IT REINFORCES THE NEED FOR THE CLOSEST COOPERATION AMONG THE SERVICES -- JOINTNESS.

    11. CHARACTERISTICS • MOVEMENTS OF LARGE MULTI-SERVICE OR MULTI-NATIONAL FORCES OVER LARGE PART OF THE THEATER • THE DEPLOYMENT FORMS THE VERY BASIS OF A PLAN FOR CAMPAIGN OR MAJOR OPERATION • SEQUENCED AND SYNCHRONIZED EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY AND NON-MILITARY SOURCES OF POWER

    12. PREREQUISITES • A SUFFICIENT PHYSICAL SPACE FOR MOVEMENTS OF LARGE FORMATIONS • FULL MASTERY OF TACTICS • THE COMMANDERS MUST HAVE THAT RARE ABILITY TO THINK BEYOND THE REALM OF PHYSICAL COMBAT • THE EXISTENCE OF THE THEATER-WIDE STRUCTURE (C2; C2W; INTELLIGENCE; FIRES; LOGISTICS; AND PROTECTION).

    13. COMPONENTS

    14. MILITARY ART COMPONENTS COMPONENT LEVEL OF WAR THEORY AND PRACTICE NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGY) • STRATEGIC • NATIONAL-STRATEGIC • THEATER-STRATEGIC STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE CONFLICT/WAR TERMINATION ISSUING STRATEGIC GUIDANCE DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY THEATERS STRATEGY ALLOCATION OF MILITARY RESOURCES AMONG THEATERS OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE BUILDING ALLIANCE/COALITION ENHANCING COUNTRY’S GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY THEORY AND PRACTICE OPERATIONAL-STRATEGIC INPUT TO CONFLICT/ WAR TERMINATION OPERATIONAL FACTORS OPERATIONAL FUNTIONS OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONS) OPERATIONAL ART (OPERATIONS) OPERATIONAL LEADERSHIP OPERATIONAL PLANNING OPERATIONAL OPERATIONAL TRAINING ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE METHODS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL THEORY AND PRACTICE COMBAT ARMS TACTICS TACTICS OF BRANCHES METHODS OF TACTICAL EMPLOYMENT TACTICS TACTICS OF WEAPONS PLATFORMS TACTICAL PLANNING TACTICAL TACTICS TACTICS OF TYPE OF SHIPS/ AIRCRAFT TACTICS OF COMBINED ARMS TYPES OF SHIPS / AIRCRAFT TACTICAL FUNCTIONS PPT-99-VEGO-40 (PFR)

    15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART AND THE LEVELS OF WAR COMPONENTS OF MILITARY ART PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT LEVEL OF WAR COMMAND ECHELON GLOBAL NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEVEL NATIONAL-STRATEGIC STRATEGY THEATER OF WAR THEATER-STRATEGIC LEVEL THEATER-STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL ART THEATER OF OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL OPERATIONAL (LAND, MARITIME) AREA OF OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL LEVEL OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL (LAND, MARITIME, AIR) TACTICS COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR) TACTICAL LEVEL TACTICAL (LAND, MARITIME, AIR) PPT-97VEG024A (PFR)

    16. OPERATIONAL FACTORS

    17. OPERATIONAL FACTORS OBJECTIVE OPERATIONAL FACTORS SPACE- FORCE SPACE TIME FORCE TIME-SPACE TIME-FORCE BALANCING FORCE SPACE - TIME - INFORMATION PPT-96VEG040B

    18. THE FACTOR OF SPACE GEOSTRATEGIC POSITIONS DISTANCES SIZE FACTOR SPACE MILITARY ORGANIZATION OF SPACE SHAPE ELEMENTS OF THE THEATER PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS DYNAMICS OF SPACE PPT-97VEG022 3/10/2014

    19. DURATION OF WAR THE FACTOR OF TIME DECISION CYCLE COLLECTING, PROCESSING AND EVALUATING INFORMATION OPENING HOSTILITIES MANEUVER/COUNTER- MANEUVER PLANNING WARNING TIME BETWEEN CONSECUTIVE MAJOR OPERATIONS/ CAMPAIGNS REACTION ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE MISSION MOBILIZATION TIME FOR: TRANSIT DEPLOYMENT COMMITMENT OF RESERVES REDEPLOYMENT TIMING REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER PREPARATION MASTERING NEW WEAPONS/ EQUIPMENT BRINGING UP REINFORCEMENTS ETC. FOR WAR FORCE RECONSTITUTION FOR A MAJOR OPERATION/CAMPAIGN CONCENTRATION/COUNTER- CONCENTRATION PPT-96VEG032A (PFR)

    20. COMBAT POTENTIAL vs. COMBAT POWER PEACETIME HOSTILITIES NON-COMBAT COMBAT COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS DESIGNED COMBAT POTENTIAL COMBAT POWER ENEMY COMBAT POWER ACTIVATION OF COMBAT POWER AVAILABLE RELATIVE COMBAT POWER PPT-00-VEGO-38 (PFR)

    21. COMBAT POWER PEACETIME HOSTILITIES NON-COMBAT COMBAT FORCE TIME AVAILABLE COMBAT POTENTIAL PLUS INFLUENCES OF: COMBAT POWER SPACE SURPRISE DECEPTION FATIGUE CHANCE / LUCK ETC. FOG OF WAR DOCTRINE FRICTION INTELLIGENCE FREEDOM OF ACTION / INITIATIVE LOGISTICAL SUSTAINMENT DECISIONS MADE PPT-00-VEGO-36 (PFR)

    22. THE THEATER

    23. THEATER STRUCTURE AND LEVELS OF WAR LEVELS OF WAR ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE THEATER (OF WAR) NATIONAL OR ALLIANCE/COALITION STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE THEATER-STRATEGIC THEATER-STRATEGIC (OR MILITARY STRATEGIC) OBJECTIVE THEATER OF OPERATIONS THEATER OF OPERATIONS THEATER OF OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL AREAS OF OPERATIONS OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVE OR MAJOR TACTICAL OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL AIR (SPACE) MARITIME LAND JOINT COMBAT ZONES/SECTORS TACTICAL OBJECTIVE TACTICAL AIR (SPACE) MARITIME LAND PPT-97VEG035

    24. CENTRAL (INTERIOR) THEATER GEOEMETRY POSITIONS PARALLEL EXTERIOR INTERIOR CONVERGING EXTERIOR THEATER GEOMETRY DIVERGING TACTICAL OPERATIONAL STRATEGIC LINE OF OPERATIONS (LOO) MAIN INTERMEDIATE BASE OF OPERATIONS SINGLE DOUBLE SHORT SHORT MULTIPLE LONG LONG PHYSICAL OBJECTIVES DECISIVE POINTS LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS (LOC) TACTICAL MINOR MAJOR LAND (LLOC) OPERATIONAL CENTRAL (INTERIOR) GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED STRATEGIC SEA (SLOC) FORCE-ORIENTED OCEANIC AIR (ALOC) CYBER-ORIENTED EXTERIOR COASTAL PPT-96VEG08

    25. THEATER GEOMETRY ENEMY CENTER OF GRAVITY LOO SLOC PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE NEW LOOS LOO LLOC INTERMEDIATE BASE OPERATIONS BASE OF OPERATIONS LOO ALOC NEW LOOS LOO DECISIVE POINTS GEOGRAPHIC-ORIENTED FORCE=ORIENTED 97-VEG032.PPT

    26. OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS

    27. OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS(IN GENERIC TERMS) COMMAND AND CONTROL (C2) COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS (C3) COMMAND & CONTROL WARFARE (C2W) INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONAL FIRES OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONAL FUNCTIONS FUNCTION OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS SUPPORT OPERATIONAL PROTECTION C2 PPT-96VEG07

    28. NATIONAL-STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP NATIONAL ALLIANCE AND/OR COALITION POLICY & STRATEGY THEATER-STRATEGIC COMMANDER THEATER CAMPAIGNS & LOW-INTENSITY CONFLICT THEATER OF OPERATIONS COMMANDER A SINGLE CAMPAIGN OPERATIONAL – TACTICAL COMMANDER A SINGLE MAJOR OPERATION TACTICAL COMMANDER TACTICAL ACTIONS (BATTLES, ENGAGEMENTS, STRIKES, ATTACKS, ETC.) SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE EFFORT LEVEL OF WAR LEVELS OF COMMAND IN SUPPORT OF STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONAL TACTICAL INTELLIGENCE TACTICAL PPT-96VEG03A (PFR)

    29. C2W COMPONENTS INFORMATION WARFARE (IW) INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT OPERATIONS SECURITY (OPSEC) ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOPS) C2W EW SUPPORT MILITARY DECEPTION (MILDEC) ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA) ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (EP) PHYSICAL DESTRUCTION PPT-96VEG02

    30. TYPE OF OPERATIONAL FIRES OPERATIONAL FIRES LETHAL NON-LETHAL CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS AIR- BASED ELECTRONIC WARFARE (EW) WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD) SEA- BASED SPECIAL FORCES NUCLEAR GROUND- BASED ELECTRONIC ATTACK (EA) CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOP) PPT-96VEG011

    31. SCALE OF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT THE COMMUNICATIONS ZONE THEATER OF WAR THEATER OF WAR COMBAT ZONE (SECTOR) HOME BASE THEATER SUSTAINMENT BASE INTER-THEATER LOCs INTRA-THEATER LOCs THEATER OF OPERATIONS STRATEGIC LOGISTICS OPERATIONAL LOGISTICS TACTICALLOGISTICS PPT-97VEG020 (PFR)

    32. OPERATIONAL PROTECTION(IN GENERIC TERMS) AIR DEFENSE AND AIRSPACE CONTROL PROTECTION OF INFORMATION COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE FOR INDICATORS & WARNING (I&W) AIR BASE GROUND DEFENSE (ABGD) FORCE PROTECTION COMPONENTS MARITIME SECURITY OF PORTS / HARBORS REAR AREA DEFENSE DEFENSE AGAINST WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD) PROTECTION OF LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE PPT-99-VEG0-61 (PFR)

    33. STAGES OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT

    34. STAGES AND ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT MILITARY DECISION-MAKING AND PLANNING MAJOR STAGES DEPLOYMENT COMBAT EMPLOYMENT & SUSTAINMENT CONFLICT/ WAR TERMINATION POST- HOSTILITIES ACTIONS RECON- STITUTION PRE- DEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES PEACETIME MOBILIZATION PEACETIME REDEPLOYMENT DEMOBILIZATION OPERATIONAL/ TACTICAL STRATEGIC OFFENSE OR DEFENSE CRITICAL FACTORS PURSUIT/ COUNTER-PURSUIT CENTERS OF GRAVITY CONCENTRATION/ COUNTER CONCENTRATION COMBAT SUCCESS CULMINATING POINT REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER MANEUVER / COUNTER MANEUVER CONSOLIDATION OF COMBAT SUCCESS ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORCE EMPLOYMENT PPT-98-VEGO-8 (PFR) PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR

    35. ELEMENTS OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE

    36. CONCEPT OF CRITICAL FACTORS CRITICAL FACTORS “CONCRETE” (TANGIBLE) “ABSTRACT” (INTANGIBLE) CRITICAL WEAKNESSES CRITICAL STRENGTHS IF OPEN TO ATTACK CRITICAL VULNERABILITIES (CVs) OBJECTIVE(S) CENTER OF GRAVITY (COG) 97-VEG033.PPT

    37. CRITICAL FACTORS CRITICAL FACTORS “PHYSICAL” (TANGIBLE) “ABSTRACT” (INTANGIBLE) • GEOGRAPHIC • GEOSTRATEGIC POSITION • GEOPOLITICAL POSITION • POSITIONS • BASE OF OPERATIONS • LINES OF OPERATIONS • LINES OF COMMUNICATIONS • ETC. • MILITARY • ARMED FORCES • INDIVIDUAL SERVICES (ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE) • THEATER ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE • NUMBERED ARMY, FLEET, AIR FORCE • MAJOR FORCE ELEMENTS (AIR CORPS, NAVAL TASK FORCES, AIR TASK FORCES) • TACTICAL UNITS (DIVISIONS, BRIGADES, REGIMENTS, NAVAL SQUADRONS / GROUPS, AIR DIVISIONS / REGIMENTS / SQUADRONS) • INTELLIGENCE • C3I NODES • LOGISTICAL SUPPORT AND SUSTAINMENT • BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE • INTELLIGENCE AND WARNING (I&W) • ETC. • POLITICAL • DIPLOMATIC • PSYCHOLOGICAL • WILL TO FIGHT • LEADERSHIP • ALLIANCE/COALITION COHESION • ALLIANCE / COALITION’S COMMUNITY OF INTERESTS • PUBLIC SUPPORT • UNITY OF COMMAND • SERVICE / JOINT DOCTRINE • MORALE • DISCIPLINE • COMBAT TRAINING • COMBAT READINESS • ETC. • NON-MILITARY • STATE ORGANIZATION • ECONOMY • MINERAL RESOURCES • AGRICULTURE • FINANCES • BANKING • ENERGY RESOURCES • ETC. 97-VEG030.PPT

    38. CENTER OF GRAVITY(IN GENERIC TERMS) “IS A SOURCE OF ‘MASSED STRENGTH’ --PHYSICAL OR MORAL OR A SOURCE OF LEVERAGE WHOSE SERIOUS DEGRADATION, DISLOCATION, NEUTRALIZATION, OR DESTRUCTION WILL HAVE THE MOST DECISIVE IMPACT ON THE ENEMY’S OR ONE’S OWN ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH A GIVEN MILITARY OBJECTIVE.”

    39. CENTER OF GRAVITY’S COMPOSITION OUTER CORE PROTECTION INTEGRATION ELEMENTS TANGIBLE INTANGIBLE FIREPOWER LEADERSHIP MANEUVER INFORMATION INFORMATION INNER CORE SUPPORT PPT-98-VEG0-4 (PFR)

    40. OPERATIONAL MANEUVER

    41. MANEUVER FORCES SCALE MANEUVER GROUND TACTICAL AIR/ SPACE OPERATIONAL NAVAL STRATEGIC ENCIRCLEMENT FORM MEDIUM SINGLE DOUBLE PENETRATION LAND COMBINED SEA PENETRATION COMBINED WITH THE ONE-SIDED ENVELOPMENT AIR/SPACE ENVELOPMENT ONE-SIDED PENETRATION COMBINED WITH THE ECCENTRIC (OR CONCENTRIC) MOVEMENT TWO-SIDED (DOUBLE) WIDE ENVELOPMENT (TURNING MOVEMENT) PPT-96VEG042

    42. THEORY OF CULMINATING POINT FACTOR OF SPACE CULMINATING POINT EQUILIBRIUM OF RELATIVE COMBAT POWER ATTACKER COMBAT POWER DEFENDER’S OBJECTIVE ATTACKER’S OBJECTIVE FACTOR OF FORCE FACTOR OF FORCE RELATIVE COMBAT POWER AREA OF UNCERTAINTY COMBAT POWER DEFENDER FACTOR OF TIME PPT-00-VEG0-22 (PFR)

    43. ATTACKER’S CULMINATION START OF OFFENSIVE OFFENSIVE STALLED FACTOR OF SPACE STALEMATE SPACE GAINED CANNOT BE HELD DIMINISHING STRENGTH OF THE ATTACKER CULMINATING POINT OF OFFENSIVE (ATTACK) LINES OF SUPPLIES FACTOR OF FORCE RELATIVE COMBAT POWER ATTACKER’S OBJECTIVE DEFENDER SUCCESS FORECLOSED OF THE STRENGTH INCREASING ATTACK STALLED FACTOR OF TIME START OF ATTACK PPT-00-VEG0-24 (PFR)

    44. DEFENDER’S CULMINATION START OF DEFENSIVE FACTOR OF SPACE SPACE LOST TO THE ATTACKER COUNTER-OFFENSIVE DIMINISHING STRENGTH CULMINATING POINT OF OF THE ATTACKER COUNTER-ATTACK TACTICAL OFFENSIVE DEFENDER’S OBJECTIVE COUNTER-OFFENSIVE COUNTER-ATTACKS FACTOR OF FORCE RELATIVE COMBAT POWER WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY OF SHIFTING TO DEFENDER OF THE STRENGTH INCREASING COUNTER-ATTACK START OF DEFENSE FACTOR OF TIME PPT-00-VEG0-23 (PFR)

    45. LEVEL OF WAR FACTOR OF SPACE OCCURRENCE CULMINATING POINT AND THE LEVELS OF WAR WAR AS A WHOLE CULMINATING POINT OF VICTORY (OR DEFEAT) IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A WAR NATIONAL-STRATEGIC CAMPAIGNS AND MAJOR OPERATIONS IT COULD OCCUR SEVERAL TIMES DURING A CAMPAIGN AND ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR OPERATION CULMINATING POINT OF OFFENSIVE (OR DEFENSIVE) THEATER-STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL IT COULD OCCUR ONLY ONCE OPERATIONAL- TACTICAL A MAJOR OPERATION CULMINATING POINT OF ATTACK (OR DEFENSE) IT OCCURS ONLY ONCE IN A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT TACTICAL A MAJOR BATTLE OR AN ENGAGEMENT FACTOR OF TIME PPT-00-VEG0-25 (PFR)

    46. REGENERATION OF COMBAT POWER ELEMENTS TASK- ORIENTED TRAINING LARGE-SCALE REPLACEMENT OF PERSONNEL REPAIR & REPLACEMENT OF WEAPONS & EQUIPMENT REESTABLISHMENT OF COMMAND AND CONTROL REST & RECREATION OF PERSONNEL REPLENISHMENT OF SUPPLIES PPT-98-VEG0-46 (PFR)

    47. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATIONAL WARFARE

    48. “THERE HAVE EXISTED IN ALL TIMES FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ON WHICH DEPEND GOOD RESULTS IN WARFARE…. THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNCHANGING, INDEPENDENT OF THE KIND OF WEAPONS, OF HISTORICAL TIME AND OF PLACE.” BARON ANTOINE HENRI DE JOMINI