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Culture. The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior, including Ideas Values Customs Artifacts. “Culture is the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life.”. Norms. Symbols. Language. Elements of Culture.

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culture
Culture

The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior, including

Ideas

Values

Customs

Artifacts

“Culture is the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life.”

slide2
Norms

Symbols

Language

Elements of Culture

Material Culture and Technology

Values and Beliefs

symbols
Symbols

Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.

language
A system of symbols and word meanings recognized by people who share a culture

Linguistic Relativity

(Sapir-Worf) hypothesis –

Language actually shapes the reality of our culture. If we do not have a word for something it likely has no meaning for us.

Language

朋友 ndugu

φίλος друг

amie amica

vriend friend

norms established standards of behavior maintained by society
Formal norms – generally written down and involve strict rules for violationsNormsestablished standards of behavior maintained by society

Informal norms – generally understood, but not precisely recorded

Laws– codified formal norms

norms established standards of behavior maintained by society1
Normsestablished standards of behavior maintained by society
  • Mores – norms deemed highly necessary for the welfare of society; embody the most cherished principles of a people
  • Folkways – norms governing everyday behavior; violation brings little concern
norms established standards of behavior maintained by society2
Normsestablished standards of behavior maintained by society
  • Taboos – norms governing what is absolutely unacceptable in a society; though many are universal, some vary from culture to culture
values and beliefs
Values and Beliefs
  • Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper in society
  • Sometimes a society’s values & beliefs may contradict each other
values and beliefs ten key values of u s culture identified by sociologist robin williams
Values and BeliefsTen key values of U.S. cultureidentified by sociologist Robin Williams:

1. Equal opportunity

2. Achievement and success

3. Material comfort

4. Activity and work

5. Practicality and efficiency

6. Progress

7. Science

8. Democracy and free enterprise

9. Freedom

10. Racism and group superiority

material culture and technology
Material Culture and Technology

Artifacts – the tangible items within a culture

Clothing

Tools

Furnishings

Technology – knowledge and understanding people use to make a way of life

Stick

Windmill

Computer

cultural diversity
Cultural Diversity

High culture – patterns that identify or are associated with the social elite

Popular culture – patterns that are widespread among a culture

cultural diversity1
Cultural Diversity

Subculture – cultural patterns that set some groups apart from the rest of society, while they still maintain a general acceptance of the dominant culture

Counter culture – cultural patterns that widely oppose those accepted within society

cultural diversity2
Cultural Diversity

Ethnocentrism – viewing one’s own culture as the ideal and judging others based on it

Xenocentrism – view another culture as more ideal than one’s own

cultural diversity3
Cultural Diversity

Multiculturalism – recognizing cultural diversity and promoting equality for all cultural traditions

Cultural relativism – judging a culture according to its own standards

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