CIS105 Chapter 1 Theory Review
Page 2 • Hardware and Software are the two major components o any computer system • Hardware is the set of physical devices associated with a computer • Software is a set of computer instructions that tell the hardware what to do.
Page 2 • Data Items enter the computer system through input devices including keyboards and mice. • The central processing (CPU) performs tasks like math, organization, and accuracy checking.
Page 3 • Computer instructions are written in a computer programming languages like Visual Basic, C#, C++, or Java. • Syntax is the rules of the language.
Page 3 • The program instructions are stored in the computer’s internal RAM memory which is internal and temporary. • A compiler or a interpreter is used to translate a programming language to binary language (machine language) of 0s and 1s. • The programming instructions are called source code and the translated code is called object code
Page 4 • When you decide on the correct instructions for a program, you are developing the program’s logic.
Page 5 • The instruction myAnswer = myNumber * 2 is an example of a processing operation.
Page 6 • Modern computer programs have been written since the 1940’s.
Page 8 • Object-Oriented Programming Steps include • Analyzing the system • Designing the system • Writing the program • Black Box Tests • Provide input and determine valid output without looking at the how the program works internally.
Page 9 • Data modeling involves identifying at least three components of a systems: • Data entity types • Data attributes • Relationships
Page 10 • Writing the program includes • Developing the logic of the program • Coding the Program • Using software to translate the program code into machine language • Testing the Program
Page 10-11 • Two common planning tools • Flowcharts • Pseudocode • Some experienced programmers can successfully combine the planning and coding of the program in one step.
Page 12 • Machine language consists of 0s and 1s • A syntax error is a misuse of a languages grammar rules
Page 14 • Conversion includes the entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over to suing a new program or set of programs an can sometimes take months or years to accomplish.
Page 15 • Maintenance is necessary because the format of some input data changes—for example • Telephone area codes • Zipcodes • Wage and tax standards
Page 15 • Flowchart is a pictorial representations of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem.
Page 17 • Input symbols and Output symbols are represented by parallelograms. • Processing symbols are represented by rectangles. • Terminal symbols are represented by lozenges. • Decision symbols are represented by diamonds. • Flowlines are arrows used to connect the steps.
Page 22 • IDE (Integrated Development Environment) • Highlights syntax errors visually