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Goat Production Update: Nutrition and Health. Presented: Ken Andries Kentucky State University Information provided by: Ken Andries, Kentucky State University Terry Hutchens, University of Kentucky Patty Scharko, University of Kentucky. Current Issues Goat Nutrition. Drought Concerns:

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goat production update nutrition and health

Goat Production Update:Nutrition and Health.

Presented: Ken Andries

Kentucky State University

Information provided by:

Ken Andries, Kentucky State University

Terry Hutchens, University of Kentucky

Patty Scharko, University of Kentucky

current issues goat nutrition
Current Issues Goat Nutrition
  • Drought Concerns:
  • Forage and feed for goats
  • Cost of winter feeding
  • Use of byproducts and co-products in goat rations
drought survival
Drought Survival
  • Calculate the amount of hay needed and plan within existing supply.
  • Goats do need fiber, soy hulls and DDGS have high fiber as does cotton seed (whole or hulls).
  • Culling to fit more desirable stocking rate and remove problems from the herd.
  • Calculate balanced diets using commodity feeds may be the best choice.
alternative feeds corn gluten
Alternative feeds: Corn Gluten
  • Corn bran 2/3 & 1/3 steep water
  • Degradable protein, improves microbial protein
  • Has been shown to replace up to 40% of forage
  • Improves feed conversion, energy = 10% greater than corn
  • No starch, + effect on fiber digestion
  • Limit to 25-30% of total ration
  • Low in Ca K, High P
alternative feeds distiller dried grains with soluables ddgs
Alternative feeds: Distiller Dried Grains with Soluables (DDGS)
  • 10-12% fat
  • Low in Starch
  • Highly digestible fiber
  • Energy levels of DDGS can be as much as 27% higher than rolled corn
  • Excellent by-pass protein source, (50%)
  • Low in Ca & high in P an K
  • Inclusion at 20-35% of the grain mix and 15-25% of the total ration dry matter
alternative feeds soybean hulls
Alternative Feeds: Soybean Hulls
  • Used to replace grain and forage in a high forage ration
  • High energy content is from digestible fiber
  • Low in Starch
  • Adequate Ca & high in P an K
  • Inclusion at 40 - 50% of the grain mix and 40% of hay
  • Protein variability is primary problem
    • Incorrect classification, SBH = 9%, SB Meal Feed 13%, Soybean Meal Run 11%
diet formulation
Diet Formulation
  • Commercial 16 % Pelleted feed
  • 20%-40%-40%
    • 20-Distillers Grains with Soluables,
    • 40- Soybean Hulls,
    • 40- Whole Corn
  • 30%-30%-40%
    • 30-Distillers Grains with Soluables,
    • 30- Soybean Hulls,
    • 40- Whole Corn
  • Hand Fed at 3% of body weight
  • By-product feeds appear to be an alternative to commercial feeds
  • Cost of feed can be reduced by as much as 50%
  • By-product feed sources are in abundance
  • By-product feeds vary in nutrient and physical quality
  • Storage is usually needed
  • Feed additives must be provided or added to the concentrate
suggestions when mixing alternative feeds
Suggestions when mixing alternative feeds
  • Problems with alternative feeds
    • Separation and dust
  • Cotton Seed Hulls, “fuzzy balls” 25 lbs/ton
  • Corn oil 1% of ration
  • Ammonium Chloride 10 lbs/Ton
  • Urea 10-20 % of total protein
  • Ca:P ratio problem
concentrate feeding amounts
Concentrate Feeding Amounts
  • Mature Does
    • Will eat 3.5-4% of her body weight/day if fed ad lib.
    • Late pregnancy feed 1.5 % body
    • Early lactation feed 2.5% body
  • Feeder and Slaughter kids
    • Feeder Kids, Slaughter Kids 2.5-3.0%
    • Remainder Hay and Pasture
animal health issues
Animal Health Issues
  • Current problems in goat health
  • New resources coming out
  • Continuing issues
lddc caprine necropsy diagnoses
LDDC Caprine Necropsy Diagnoses

Diagnosis 2006 2005

Parasitism 56 (22%) 44 (19%)

Pneumonia 44 (17%) 41 (18%)

Coccidia 26 (10%) 24 (10%)

Enteritis 17 (7%) 14 (6%)

Myodegeneration 12 (5%) 12 (5%)

Listeria 16 (6%) 11 (5%)

No Diagnosis 13 (5%)18 (8%)

Total 251 231

Goats made up 6% of LDDC submissions in 2005

parasite control issues
Parasite control issues
  • H. Contortus still appears to be the major issue.
  • Resistance is building fast to available products.
  • Pasture management and selective deworming based on actual weight of animals is needed.
  • Selection is critical for long term survival.
  • Problem is increasing in many herds.
  • Vaccine trial was started this year. Appears to be effective in providing some protection.
  • Cattle inter nasal vaccines at 1cc per head (~1/2 cattle dose) with half given in each nostril, off label.
cl vaccine research
CL vaccine research
  • CL vaccine trial is continuing.
  • This year there was a higher incidence of CL at the KSU farm.
  • Cases were over 98% in non vaccinated animals.
  • If producers are having a problem, this product is working.
new resources
New resources
  • Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC)
    • Integrated parasite control train the trainer materials due out before January 08.
  • Meat Goat Production hand Book available from Langston University at http://www.luresext.edu/goats/training/qa.html select brows to read without cost.
  • Kentucky Goat training.
    • Agent In-service Training on Goats Nov 1 Muhlenberg Co and Nov 8 Quicksand.
    • 3 training modules due out this winter and next spring include health, forages, and nutrition.
continuing health issues
Continuing Health Issues
  • FAMACHA trainings are available upon request, goats or sheep will be required at the training.
  • Se deficiencies are still a problem in especially in kids.
  • Over stocking continues to be a problem in most areas.
  • Selection for health is slow but critical.
  • Parasites are still the #1 killer of goats in Kentucky.
  • The goat industry in KY is still growing.
  • Drought issues are similar to other livestock and feeding may be cheaper than hay but fiber is necessary for healthy animals.
  • Alternative feeds will be the key to survival this winter in many herds