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World Exploration. Why Explore?. GOLD, GLORY and GOD Demand for goods (spices) Muslims and Italians controlled trade routes- wanted direct routes. Take out the middle man.

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Why explore
Why Explore?


  • Demand for goods (spices)

  • Muslims and Italians controlled trade routes- wanted direct routes. Take out the middle man.

  • Mercantilism--belief that a nation’s real wealth was measured in its gold and silver treasure.


  • Portugal

    • Prince Henry the Navigator

      • School for exploration

    • Dias – Cape of Good Hope

    • Da Gama – Gets to India!!


  • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand

  • Line of Demarcation-- Treaty of Tordesailles

  • Magellan –


    (goes around the world)

  • Balboa

    Ponce de Leon

    and Columbus

Portugal influences Brazil

Spain—rest of Central and South America

Northwest passage
Northwest Passage

  • England: John Cabot and Henry Hudson

  • France: Jacque Cartier and Verranzzano

Southeast asia
Southeast Asia

  • Geography—mainland and many small islands

    • Monsoons shaped trading patterns

  • Women were successful merchants and rulers in some ports

  • Vietnam

    • Ruled by China for 1000 years

Portugal in southeast asia
PortugalIn Southeast Asia

  • Indian Ocean--Portuguese Lake

  • Gained control by military force

    • Burned towns, destroyed Asian fleets

  • Muslims resented Portuguese because of religious intolerance

    • Missionaries caused resentment

  • Portuguese remain on the fringe of Asian trade (strong at sea not on land)

Dutch and spanish in southeast asia
Dutch and SpanishIn Southeast Asia

  • By 1500's Dutch were the front runners of European commerce

  • Formed Dutch East Indies Company

  • Captured many Portuguese ports,

    • Used the military to expand trade, but forged ties to local authorities

  • Spain conquers the Philippines easily because Filipinos were not united

Europe and india
Europe and India

  • India’s ruling dynasty--Mughals were very civilized--larger and more powerful than Europe

  • Portuguese, English, French and Dutch allowed to build forts

  • When Mughals lost power, French and English fought over control of India

    • England gains control of India because of military strength and clever diplomacy

    • The decline of the Mughal empire was because of religious intolerance

    • British East India Company drove the French out and forced the Mughals to recognize its power in Bengal

Robert Clive

Early china
Early China

  • Ming dynasty had ended sea explorations in 1400's

  • Didn’t like the foreigners--thought they had little to trade/inferior products--gold/silver only

  • Macao--Canton only places that they could trade during the trading season.

Korea and japan
Korea and Japan

  • Korea, like China limited trading with outsiders

    • Had wars with Japan and the Manchus—became isolated

    • Came to be known as Hermit Kingdom

  • Japan at first welcomed traders

    • Adopted firearms and built castles

    • Adopted Christianity

    • Tokugawa shoguns grew increasingly hostile and barred Western traders—became isolated

The americas
The Americas

  • Conquistadors wanted riches and to convert Native Americans

  • Cortes used help from the conquered peoples to fight the Aztecs

  • Montezuma sent gifts in hopes that the Spanish (Quetzalcoatl?) would not continue to Tenochtitlan

  • The Spanish destroy the city and later build Mexico City

  • Pizzaro killed thousands of Peruvians and demanded ransom for their ruler and then killed him anyway.

Reasons for victory
Reasons for Victory

  • Superior Military Technology

  • Horses, muskets, cannons, metal helmets and armor

  • Division and Discontent among the Indians

  • Disease brought by the Europeans

    • Thought that gods had deserted them because the Spanish seemed immune to the diseases that devastated the Indians

  • Indians believed that the disasters marked the world’s end.

Spanish and portuguese colonies in the americas
Spanish and Portuguese Colonies in the Americas

  • Spain determined to have strict control over empire both politically and economically

    • Catholic Church baptized and forced Indians into European customs

    • Forbade the use of Indian slaves after abuses in the system--encomiendas

    • Brought slaves from Africa instead

  • Portugal did not bring back instant wealth

    • Forced Indians to clear land

    • Cattle ranching

North america
North America

  • British and French compete over lands

    • British settle along the coast and around Hudson Bay

    • French settle along Mississippi River and around the Great Lakes

  • Jamestown nearly failed—tobacco

    • French find fur

  • Seven Years War--In N. America and Europe

    • France had to give up its claims in N. America

  • Native Americans are killed by settlers and disease


  • Outposts set on the coasts of Africa by European nations

    • Portugal is first

  • Many of the new kingdoms that developed in West Africa in the early modern age were influenced by Islam

  • Most important part of African trade--slaves

  • Triangular Trade

  • Middle Passage-- Floating coffins

    • About 11 million slaves went to America

  • Columbian Exchange—plants, technology and cultures