French Landscape Garden Design. Louis V. Mills – February 20,2012. French Garden Tradition. Inspired by Italian Renaissance Garden Designs of 15 th Century Early interest from Charles VII 1493, Louis XII 1498 and Francis1 in 1515 LOUIS XIV completely dominates power in the 17 th Century
French Landscape Garden Design Louis V. Mills – February 20,2012
French Garden Tradition • Inspired by Italian Renaissance Garden Designs of 15th Century • Early interest from Charles VII 1493, Louis XII 1498 and Francis1 in 1515 • LOUIS XIV completely dominates power in the 17th Century • France emerges from Hundred Years Wars in early 17th Century • Merged Italian idea of courtyard terraced garden to moated chateau with view beyond • Flat vs. hilly topography forces design change • Bosques, Allees or Groves of trees planted to frame views and give proportion to walks & paths • French innovation: the moat, corner towers on castles, candle-snuffer tops, highly pitched roofs with high dormers. • Gardens highly modified landscapes to produce stunning views from central palace.
Major French Garden Designers and Personalities • Charles VII • Maria de Medici • Cardinal Mazarin • Nicolas Fouquet- Finance Minister • Claude Mollet and Sons • Jean Le Notre • Andre Le Notre • Louis XIV – Le Roi Soleil
Major French Gardens • Tuileries Gardens and Bosque- Paris • Broderie par terre- created by Catherine de Medici • Luxembourg Gardens 1615 (Paris)- Maria de Medici • Vaux-le-Vicomte 1656-1661 (between Paris and Fontainebleau- Fouquet and Andre Le Notre • Versailles- 1670-1715- Andre Le Notre/Louis XIV
Luxembourg Gardens 1615 Sponsor: Maria de Medici
Versailles facts • Symbolic of Louis XIV , Le Roi Soleil • Started out as hunting lodge, views from bedroom • Basic plan is simple skeleton of two long sight lines; one dominant • Green carpet is view from sight lines- paths to right unlike Vaux-le-Vicomte- unobstructive lawn view • All emphasis of primary importance of king; to stun, not impress • Twenty acres of kitchen gardens, 3000 Orange trees, 5000 workers, 14,000 fountains, 1mile long canal x 300’ wide, unlimited budget • Much larger woods(Bosques) than Vaux-le Comte.